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Grammar Tutorial ::: Future Tense / लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara

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लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara (Future Tense): In previous chapter we studied about present tense. In this chapter we will study about future tense. लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara) verb-forms represent the future tense in a sentence. So, while forming sentences in future tense we need to use verbd-forms from लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara).

The complete लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara of पठ् / paTh (read) and गम् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in भविष्यतकाल (bhaviShyatakaala) or future tense.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Future Tense - Third Person Singular
वर्तमानकाल प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana
1. The boy will read.बालकः पठिष्यति
vaalakaH paThiShyati
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
2. The girl will read. बालिका पठिष्यति
baalikaa paThiShyati
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
3. Rama will read. रामः पठिष्यति
raamaH paThiShyati
राम
raama
पठ्
paTh
-
4. Sita will read. सीता पठिष्यति
siitaa paThiShyati
सीता
siitaa
पठ्
paTh
-
5. The boy will go. बालकः गमिष्यति
baalakaH gamiShyati
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
6. The girl will go. बालिका गमिष्यति
baalikaa gamiShyati
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
Future Tense - Third Person Plural
भविष्यतकाल प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / bhaviShyatakaala prathamapuruSha bahuvachana
7. The boys will read. बालकाः पठिष्यन्ति
baalakaaH paThiShyanti
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
8. The girls will read. बालिकाः पठिष्यन्ति
baalikaaH paThiShyanti
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
9. Students will read. च्छात्राः पठिष्यन्ति
chchhaatraaH paThiShyanti
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
10. Clearks will read. लिपिकाराः पठिष्यन्ति
lipikaaraaH paThiShyanti
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
11. The boys will go. बालकाः गमिष्यन्ति
baalakaaH gamiShyanti
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
12. The girls will go. बालिकाः गमिष्यन्ति
baalikaaH gamiShyanti
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always follows the number and peson, the verb (पठति / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural (प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb (पठन्ति / paThanti) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् (paTh).

All the above sentences were in third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha). Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha).



आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Future Tense - Second Person Singular
भविष्यतकाल मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / bhaviShyatakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana
13. You will go.त्वं गमिष्यसि
tva.n gamiShyasi
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
14. You will read.त्वं पठिष्यसि
tva.n paThiShyasi
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Future Tense - First Person Singular
भविष्यतकाल उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / bhaviShyatakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana
15. I will go.अहं गमिष्यामि
aha.n gamiShyaami
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
16. I will read.अहं पठिष्यामि
aha.n paThiShyaami
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Future Tense - Second Person Plural
भविष्यतकाल मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / bhaviShyatakaala madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana
17. You all will go.युयं गमिष्यथ
yua.n gamiShyatha
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
18. You all will read.युयं पठिष्यथ
yua.n paThiShyatha
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Future Tense - First Person Plural
भविष्यतकाल उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / bhaviShyatakaala uttamapuruSha bahuvachana
19. We all will go.वयं गमिष्यामः
vaya.n gamiShyaamaH
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
20. We all will read.वयं पठिष्यामः
vaya.n paThiShyaamaH
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural (मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person plural (उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all these sentences the Subjects used is अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of first person the kartaa is always अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda).

You may have observed that the verb forms in future tense (लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara) are similar to present tense (लट्लकार / laTlakaara) with a minor deviation. In case of a पठ् धातु (paTh dhaatu), the लृट्लकार form can be derived from the लट्लकार form by inserting इष्य (iShya) before the तिप् (tip) end. For most verb forms this is true.

Grammatical Rule
For most verbs, the लृट्लकार form can be derived from the लट्लकार form by inserting इष्य (iShya) before the तिप् (tip) end.

However some verbs take a slightly different form in their overall formation. In case of गम् धातु (gam dhaatu) instead of गच्छिष्तति / gachchhiShyati the correct form is गमिष्यति / gamiShyati and so on. This deviations should be kept in mind for such specific verbs.

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Future Tense - Dual
भविष्यतकाल द्विवचन / bhaviShyatakaala dvivachana
21. Two boys will read.बालकौ पठिष्यतः
baalakau paThiShyataH
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
22. Two girls will read. बालिके पठिष्यतः
baalike paThiShyataH
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
23. Two boys will go. बालकौ गमिष्यतः
baalakau gamiShyataH
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
24. Two girls will go. बालिके गमिष्यतः
baalike gamiShyataH
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
25. Two students will read. च्छात्रौ पठिष्यतः
chchhatrau paThiShyataH
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
26. Two clearks will read. लिपिकारौ पठिष्यतः
lipikaarau paThiShyataH
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
27. Both of you will go.युवां गमिष्यथः
yuvaa.n gamiShyathaH
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
28. Both of you will read.युवां पठिष्यथः
yuvaa.n paThiShyathaH
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
29. Both of us will go.आवां गमिष्यावः
aavaa.n gamiShyaavaH
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
30. Both of us will read.आवां पठिष्यावः
aavaa.n paThiShyaavaH
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those.

In the next chapter we will study लङ्लकार (laN^lakaara) or past tense.



Read / पठ् / paTh : लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara
(Future tense / भविष्यतकाल / bhaviShyatakaala)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
पठिष्यति / paThiShyati पठिष्यतः / paThiShyataH पठिष्यन्ति / paThiShyanti
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
पठिष्यसि / paThiShyasi पठिष्यथः / paThiShyathaH पठिष्यथ / paThiShyatha
First
उत्तम / uttama
पठिष्यामि / paThiShyaami पठिष्यावः / paThiShyaabaH पठिष्यामः / paThiShyaamaH


Go / गम् / gam : लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara
(Future tense / भविष्यतकाल / bhaviShyatakaala)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
गमिष्यति / gamiShyati गमिष्यतः / gamiShyataH गमिष्यन्ति / gamiShyanti
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
गमिष्यसि / gamiShyasi गमिष्यथः / gamiShyathaH गमिष्यथ / gamiShyatha
First
उत्तम / uttama
गमिष्यामि / gamiShyaami गमिष्यावः / gamiShyaavaH गमिष्यामः / gamiShyaamaH


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