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Grammar Tutorial ::: Present Tense / वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala

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लट्लकार / laTlakaara (Present Tense): लट्लकार (laTlakaara) represents verb-forms in present tense (वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala). So, while forming a sentence which is in present tense, the verb (क्रिया / kriaa) has to be in लट्लकार (laTlakaara).

The complete लट्लकार / laTlakaara of पठ् / paTh (read) and गम् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in वर्तमानकाल (vartamaanakaala) or present tense.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Present Tense - Third Person Singular
वर्तमानकाल प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana
1. The boy is reading. बालकः पठति
baalakaH paThati
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
2. The girl is reading. बालिका पठति
baalikaa paThati
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
3. Rama is reading. रामः पठति
raamaH paThati
राम
raama
पठ्
paTh
-
4. Sita is reading. सीता पठति
siitaa paThati
सीता
siitaa
पठ्
paTh
-
5. The boy is going. बालकः गच्छति
baalakaH gachchhati
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
6. The girl is going. बालिका गच्छति
baalikaa gachchhati
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
Present Tense - Third Person Plural
वर्तमानकाल प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / vartamaanakaala prathamapuruSha bahuvachana
7. The boys are reading. बालकाः पठन्ति
baalakaaH paThanti
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
8. The girls are reading. बालिकाः पठन्ति
baalikaaH paThati
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
9. Students are reading. च्छात्राः पठन्ति
chchhaatraaH paThati
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
10. Clearks are reading. लिपिकाराः पठन्ति
lipikaaraaH paThanti
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
11. The boys are going. बालकाः गच्छन्ति
baalakaaH gachchhanti
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
12. The girls are going. बालिकाः गच्छन्ति
baalikaaH gachchhanti
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always follows the number and peson, the verb (पठति / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural (प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb (पठन्ति / paThanti) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् (paTh).

One thing we can note that the gender of Subject does not affect the verb-form in use. Only the number and person are followed by verb. In case sentences 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11 the Subject are in musculine (पुङ्लिन्ग / puN^linga) gender. In case of sentences 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 the Subject are in feminine (स्त्रीलिङ्ग / striiliN^ga). However in neither case the verb depends upon the gender.

All the above sentences were in third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha). Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha).



आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Present Tense - Second Person Singular
वर्तमानकाल मध्यमपुरुष/ एकवचन / vartamaanakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana
13. You are going. त्वं गच्छसि
tva.n gachchhasi
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
14. You are reading. त्वं पठसि
tva.n paThasi
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Present Tense - First Person Singular
वर्तमानकाल उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / vartamaanakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana
15. I am going. अहं गच्छामि
aha.n gachchhaami
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
16. I am reading. अहं पठामि
aha.n paThaami
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Present Tense - Second Person Plural
वर्तमानकाल मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / vartamaanakaala madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana
17. You all are going. युयं गच्छथ
yua.n gachchhatha
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
18. You all are reading. युयं पठथ
yua.n paThatha
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Present Tense - First Person Plural
वर्तमानकाल उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / vartamaanakaala uttamapuruSha bahuvachana
19. We all are going. वयं गच्छामः
vaya.n gachchhaamaH
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
20. We all are reading. वयं पठामः
vaya.n paThaamaH
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana)and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural (मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person plural (उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all these sentences the Subjects used is अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of first person the kartaa is always अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda).

As we know unlike English or any other language, Sanskrit language has three different numbers viz., singular, plural and dual. This dual number is specific to Sanskrit and must be used accordingly. The followings are the dual number form of above sentences.



आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Present Tense - Dual
वर्तमानकाल द्विवचन / vartamaanakaala dvivachana
21. Two boys are reading. बालकौ पठतः
baalakau paThataH
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
22. Two girls are reading. बालिके पठतः
baalike paThataH
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
23. Two boys are going. बालकौ गच्छतः
baalakau gachchhataH
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
24. Two girls are going. बालिके गच्छतः
baalike gachchhataH
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
25. Two students are reading. च्छात्रौ पठतः
chchhatrau paThataH
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
26. Two clearks are reading. लिपिकारौ पठतः
lipikaarau paThataH
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
27. Both of you are going. युवां गच्छथः
yuvaa.n gachchhathaH
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
28. Both of you are reading. युवां पठथः
yuvaa.n paThathaH
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
29. Both of us are going. आवां गच्छावः
aavaa.n gachchhaavaH
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
30. Both of us are reading. आवां पठावः
aavaa.n paThaavaH
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using लट्लकार / laTlakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those.

In the next chapter we will study लृट्लकार (lRRiTlakaara) or future tense.



Read / पठ् / paTh : लट्लकार / laTlakaara
(Present tense / वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
पठति / paThati पठतः / paThataH पठन्ति / paThanti
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
पठसि / paThasi पठथः / paThathaH पठथ / paThatha
First
उत्तम / uttama
पठामि / paThaami पठावः / paThaavaH पठामः / paThaamaH


Go / गम् / gam : लट्लकार / laTlakaara
(Present tense / वर्तमानकाल / vartamaanakaala)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
गच्छति / gachchhati गच्छतः / gachchhataH गच्छन्ति / gachchhanti
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
गच्छसि / gachchhasi गच्छथः / gachchhathaH गच्छथ / gachchhatha
First
उत्तम / uttama
गच्छामि / gachchhaami गच्छावः / gachchhaavaH गच्छामः / gachchhaamaH


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