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Grammar Tutorial ::: Past Tense / लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara

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लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara (Past Tense): In previous chapter we studied about future tense. In this chapter we will study about past tense. लङ्लकार (laN^lakaara) verb-forms represent the past tense in a sentence. So, while forming sentences in past tense we need to use verbd-forms from लङ्लकार (laN^lakaara).

The complete लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara of पठ् / paTh (read) and गम् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in भुतकाल (bhutakaala) or past tense.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Past Tense - Third Person Singular
भुतकाल प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / bhutakaala prathamapuruSha ekavachana
1. The boy was reading. बालकः अपठत्
baalakaH apaThat
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
2. The girl was reading. बालिका अपठत्
baalikaa apaThat
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
3. Rama was reading. रामः अपठत्
raamaH apaThat
राम
raama
पठ्
paTh
-
4. Sita was reading. सीता अपठत्
siitaa apaThat
सीता
siitaa
पठ्
paTh
-
5. The boy was going. बालकः अगच्छत्
baalakaH agachchhat
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
6. The girl was going. बालिका अगच्छत्
baalikaa agachchhat
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
Past Tense - Third Person Plural
भुतकाल प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / bhutakaala prathamapuruSha bahuvachana)
7. The boys were reading. बालकाः अपठन्
baalakaaH apaThan
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
8. The girls were reading. बालिकाः अपठन्
baalikaaH apaThan
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
9. Students were reading. च्छात्राः अपठन्
chchhaatraaH apaThan
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
10. Clearks were reading. लिपिकाराः अपठन्
lipikaaraaH apaThan
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
11. The boys were going. बालकाः अगच्छन्
baalakaaH agachchhan
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
12. The girls were going. बालिकाः अगच्छन्
baalikaaH agachchhan
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always follows the number and peson, the verb (पठति / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural (प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb (पठन्ति / paThanti) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् (paTh).

All the above sentences were in third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha). Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha).



आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Past Tense - Second Person Singular
भुतकाल मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / bhutakaala madhyamapuruSha ekavachana
13. You were going. त्वं अगच्छः
tva.n agachchhaH
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
14. You were reading. त्वं अपठः
tva.n apaThaH
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Past Tense - First Person Singular
भुतकाल उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / bhutakaala uttamapuruSha ekavachana
15. I was going. अहं अगच्छम्
aha.n agachchham
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
16. I was reading. अहं अपठम्
aha.n apaTham
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Past Tense - Second Person Plural
भुतकाल मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / bhutakaala madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana)
17. You all were going. युयं अगच्छत
yua.n agachchhata
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
18. You all were reading. युयं अपठत
yua.n apaThata
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Past Tense - First Person Plural
भुतकाल उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / bhutakaala uttamapuruSha bahuvachana)
19. We all were going. वयं अगच्छाम
vaya.n agachchhaama
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
20. We all were reading. वयं अपठाम
vaya.n apaThaama
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural (मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person plural (उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all these sentences the Subjects used is अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of first person the kartaa is always अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda).

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Past Tense - Dual
भुतकाल द्विवचन / bhutakaala dvivachana)
21. Two boys were reading. बालकौ अपठताम्
baalakau apaThataam
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
22. Two girls were reading. बालिके अपठताम्
baalike apaThataam
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
23. Two boys were going. बालकौ अपठताम्
baalakau apaThataam
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
24. Two girls were going. बालिके अगच्छताम्
baalike agachchhataam
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
25. Two students were reading. च्छात्रौ अपठताम्
chchhatrau apaThataam
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
26. Two clearks were reading. लिपिकारौ अपठताम्
lipikaarau apaThataam
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
27. Both of you were going. युवां अगच्छतम्
yuvaa.n agachchhatam
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
28. Both of you were reading. युवां अपठतम्
yuvaa.n apaThatam
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
29. Both of us were going. आवां अगच्छाव
aavaa.n agachchhaava
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
30. Both of us were reading. आवां अपठाव
aavaa.n apaThaava
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those.

In the next chapter we will study आझयांलोट्लकार (aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara) or verb-forms representing commands and requests.

Read / पठ् / paTh : लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara
(Past tense / भुतकाल / bhutakaala)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
अपठत् / apaThat अपठताम् / apaThataam अपठन् / apaThan
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
अपठः / apaThaH अपठतम् / apaThatam अपठत / apaThata
First
उत्तम / uttama
अपठम् / apaTham अपठाव / apaThaava अपठाम / apaThaama

Go / गम् / gam : लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara
(Past tense / भुतकाल / bhutakaala)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
अगच्छत् / agachchhat अगच्छताम् / agachchhataam अगच्छन् / agachchhan
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
अगच्छः / agachchhaH अगच्छतम् / agachchhatam अगच्छत / agachchhata
First
उत्तम / uttama
अगच्छम् / agachchham अगच्छाव / agachchhaava अगच्छाम / agachchhaama


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