SAMSKRUTAM

SAMSKRUTAM Studies

Welcome Guest!  | Login
Home | Sanskrit Editor | Help (?) |  »

Literature

Tutorial

Resources

Miscellaneous

SAMSKRUTAM

Grammar Tutorial ::: Reference - Verb Forms / धारुरूप / dhaaturuupa

RSS

Verb Classification (धारुरूप / dhaaturuupa): In chapter 1 and 3 we learnt about verb forms. Each verb has:

  • 10 tenses or लकार (lakaara). We have seen out of the 10 tenses 5 are enough for all our day-to-day needs;
  • 3 persons or पुरुष (पुरुष) - 3rd person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha), 2nd person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and 1st person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha);
  • and 3 numbers - singuar (एकवचन / ekavachana), dual (द्द्विवचन /dvivachana) and plural (बहुवचन / bahuvachana)
The verb form is derived by adding special suffix तिप् (tip) to the root of the word. All such words are also called तिवन्तपद (tivantapada) meaning "ending with तिप् (tip)". In this chapter we will learn about classification of verbs and their respective तिप् (tip) suffixes.

The verb form for each category of word is derived by adding pre-defined pattern of तिप् (tip) suffixes to the word root. All other words in that category follow the same pattern. For example - the verb "be" or भू (bhuu) has a form like भवति (bhavati), भवतः (bhavataH), भन्ति (bhavanti) and so on. The verb "read" or पठ् (paTh) is of the same category and follows the same pattern as पठति (paThati), पठतः (paThataH), पठन्ति (paThanti). In both the cases the suffixes ति (ti), तः (taH) and न्ति (nti) were added to the root words be (भू / bhuu) and read (पठ् / paTh) to get the derived form.

In Sanskrit verbs are classified into different categories based on:
  • the receiver of their result. If the result of the action represented by the verb is for the doer (Subject), then it is आत्मनेपदी (aatmanepadii) meaning "for self". All other verbs are परस्मैपदी (parasmaipadii) or "for others". The तिप् (tip) suffix used in these are different. Following table has the तिप् (tip) suffixes, for both.

    पद - पुरुष
    pada - puruSha
    for others
    परस्मैपदी - parasmaipadii
    for self
    आत्मनेपदी - aatmanepadii
    3rd Person
    प्रथमपुरुष - prathamapuruSha
    तिप्
    tip
    तस्
    tas
    झि
    jhi

    ta
    आताम्
    aataam

    jh
    2nd Person
    मध्यमपुरुष - madhyamapuruSha
    सिप्
    sip
    थस्
    thas

    tha
    थास्
    thaas
    आथाम्
    aathaam
    ध्वम्
    dhvam
    1st Person
    उत्तमपुरुष - uttamapuruSha
    मिप्
    mip
    वस्
    vas
    मस्
    mas
    इट्
    iT
    वहिङ्
    vahiN^
    महिङ्
    mahiN^


  • their group or गण (gaNa). The verbs can belong to one of the 10 pre-defined groups or गण (gaNa). The groups are -
    • भ्वादिगण - bhvaadigaNa
    • अदादिगण - adaadigaNa
    • जुहोत्यादिगण - juhotyaadigaNa
    • दिवादिगण - divaadigaNa
    • स्वादिगण - svaadigaNa
    • तुदादिगण - tudaadigaNa
    • रुधादिगण - rudhaadigaNa
    • तनादिगण - tanaadigaNa
    • क्रयादिगण - krayaadigaNa
    • चुरादिगण - churaadigaNa


Following is a set of important verbs with their verb-forms along with the list of verbs of same category. Knowing these will help in deriving the verb forms of other similar words. Note: We are in the process of adding verb-forms of more such verbs.

गण
gaNa
परस्मैपदी
parasmaipadii
आत्मनेपदी
aatmanepadii
उभयपदी
ubhayapadii
भ्वादिगण
bhvaadigaNa
भू - bhuu, पठ् - paTh, गम् - gam, दृश् - dRRish, स् - sthaaथा, वद् - vad, श्रु - shru, रक्ष् - raksh, रक्ष - raksha, पा - paa, घ्रा - ghraa, सेव् - sev, पच् - pach, नम् - nam, स्कृ- skRRi, वस् - vas लभ् - labh, सेव् - sev, बुध् - budh, मृद्- mRRid, सह् - sah, वृत् - vRRit, ईक्ष् - iiksh याच् - yaach, नी - nii, वह् - vah
अदादिगण
adaadigaNa
अद् - ad, अस् - as, रुद् - rud, सूप् - suup, स्तु - stu, या - yaa, पा - paa, शास् - shaas, विद् - vid आस् - aas, शी - shii, ब्रु - bru, अधि + इ - adhi + i  
जुहोत्यादिगण
juhotyaadigaNa
हृ - hRRi, भी - bhii, हा - haa, ह्री - hrii मा - maa भू - bhuu, दा - daa, धा - dhaa
दिवादिगण
divaadigaNa
दिव् - div, नृत् - nRRit, नश् - nash, भ्रम् - bhram, श्रम् - shram, सो - so, नो - no, कुप् - kup पद् - pad, सुध् - sudh, जन् - jan  
स्वादिगण
svaadigaNa
आप् - aap, शक् - shak, चि - chi अश् - ash सु - su
तुदादिगण
tudaadigaNa
इष् - iSh, प्रच्छ् - prachchh, लिख् - likh, स्पृश् - spRRish म - ma, सिप् - sip तुक् - tuk, मुञ्च् - muJNch
रुधादिगण
rudhaadigaNa
छिद् - chhid, भिद् - bhid, हिंस् - hi.ns, भाज् - bhaaj, भूज् - bhuuj, युज् - yuj भूज् - bhuuj, युज् - yuj रुध् - rudh
तनादिगण
tanaadigaNa
    तन् - tan, कृ - kRRi
क्रयादिगण
krayaadigaNa
बन्ध् - bandh, मन्त्र् - mantr   क्री - krii, स्कुञ्ज् - skuJNj, गृह् - gRRih, पूञ्ज् - puuJNj, ज्ञा - dnyaa, शीञ्ज् - shiiJNj, मीञ्ज् - miiJNj, विज् - vij
चुरादिगण
churaadigaNa
चुर् - chur   रुद् - rud, चिन्त् - chint, गण् - gaN, कथ् - kath, भक्ष् - bhaksh



be - भू - bhuu
be - भू - bhuu
(लट्लकार भ्वादिगण परस्मैपदी - laTlakaara bhvaadigaNa parasmaipadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
भवति
bhavati
भवतः
bhavataH
भवन्ति
bhavanti
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
भवसि
bhavasi
भवथः
bhavathaH
भवथ
bhavatha
First
उत्तम / uttama
भवामि
bhavaami
भवावः
bhavaavaH
भवामः
bhavaamaH



be - भू - bhuu
(लङ्लकार भ्वादिगण परस्मैपदी - laN^lakaara bhvaadigaNa parasmaipadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
अभवत्
abhavat
अभवताम्
abhavataam
अभवत्
abhavat
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
अभवः
abhavaH
अभवतम्
abhavatam
अभवत
abhavata
First
उत्तम / uttama
अभवम्
abhavam
अभवाव
abhavavaava
अभवाम
abhavavaama



be - भू - bhuu
(लृट्लकार भ्वादिगण परस्मैपदी - lRRiTlakaara bhvaadigaNa parasmaipadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
भविष्यति
bhaviShyati
भविष्यतः
bhaviShyataH
भविष्यन्ति
bhaviShyanti
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
भविष्यसि
bhaviShyasi
भविष्यथः
bhaviShtathaH
भविष्यथ
bhaviShyatha
First
उत्तम / uttama
भविष्यामि
bhaviShyaami
भविष्यावः
bhaviShyaavaH
भविष्यामः
bhaviShyaamaH



be - भू - bhuu
(विधैलिङ्लकार भ्वादिगण परस्मैपदी - vidhailiN^lakaara bhvaadigaNa parasmaipadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
भवेत्
bhavet
भवेताम्
bhavetaam
भवेयुः
bhaveyuH
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
भवेः
bhaveH
भवेतम्
bhavetam
भवेत
bhaveta
First
उत्तम / uttama
भवेयम्
bhaveyam
भवेव
bhaveva
भवेम
bhavema

be - भू - bhuu
(आझयांलोट्लकार भ्वादिगण परस्मैपदी - aadnyaa.nloTlakaara bhvaadigaNa parasmaipadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
भवतु
bhavatu
भवताम्
bhavataam
भवन्तु
bhavantu
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
भव
bhava
भवतम्
bhavatam
भवत
bhavata
First
उत्तम / uttama
भवानि
bhavaani
भवाव
bhavaava
भवाम
bhavaama
Similar Words
समरूपधातु / samaruupadhaatu
पठ् - paTh, वद् - vad, श्रु - shru, रक्ष् - raksh, रक्ष - raksha, पा - paa, घ्रा - ghraa, सेव् - sev, पच् - pach, नम् - nam, वस् - vas, गम् - gam, दृश् - dRRish, स्था - sthaa




get - लभ् - labh

get - लभ् - labh
(लट्लकार भ्वादिगण आत्मनेपदी - laTlakaara bhvaadigaNa aatmanepadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
लभते
labhate
लभेते
labhete
लभन्ते
labhante
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
लभसे
labhase
लभेथे
labhethe
लभध्वे
labhadhve
First
उत्तम / uttama
लभे
labhe
लभावहे
labhaavahe
लभामहे
labhaamahe



get - लभ् - labh
(लङ्लकार भ्वादिगण आत्मनेपदी - laN^lakaara bhvaadigaNa aatmanepadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
अलभत
alabhata
अलभेताम्
alabhetaam
अलभन्त
alabhanta
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
अलभथाः
alabhathaaH
अलभेथाम्
alabhethaam
अलभध्वाम्
alabhadhvaam
First
उत्तम / uttama
अलभे
alabhe
अलभावहै
alabhaavahai
अलभामहि
alabhaamahi



get - लभ् - labh
(लृट्लकार भ्वादिगण आत्मनेपदी - lRRiTlakaara bhvaadigaNa aatmanepadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
लप्स्यते
lapsyate
लप्स्येते
lapsyete
लप्स्यन्ते
lapsyante
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
लप्स्यसे
lapsyase
लप्स्येथे
lapsyethe
लप्स्यध्वे
lapsyadhve
First
उत्तम / uttama
लप्स्ये
lapsye
लप्स्यावहे
lapsyaavahe
लप्स्यामहे
lapsyaamahe



get - लभ् - labh
(विधैलिङ्लकार भ्वादिगण आत्मनेपदी - vidhailiN^lakaara bhvaadigaNa aatmanepadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
लभेत
labheta
लभेयाताम्
labheyaataam
लभेरन्
labheran
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
लभेथाः
labhethaaH
लभेयाथाम्
labheyaathaam
लभेध्वाम्
labhedhvaam
First
उत्तम / uttama
लभेय
labheya
लभेवहि
labhevahi
लभेमहि
labhemahi



get - लभ् - labh
(आझयांलोट्लकार भ्वादिगण आत्मनेपदी - aadnyaa.nloTlakaara bhvaadigaNa aatmanepadii)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
लभताम्
labhataam
लभेताम्
labhetaam
लभन्ताम्
labhantaam
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
लभस्व
labhasva
लभेथाम्
labhethaam
लभध्वाम्
labhadhvaam
First
उत्तम / uttama
लभै
labhai
लभावहै
labhaavahai
लभामहै
labhaamahai
Similar Words
समरूपधातु / samaruupadhaatu
सेव् - sev, वुध् - vudh, मृद् - mRRid, सह् - sah, वृत् - vRRit, ईक्ष् - iiksh






<<  :::  Index  :::  >>
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work by SAMSKRUTAM is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You can copy, distribute, transmit, adapt, and make use of the work (including commercial); with attribution of this work to SAMSKRUTAM.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. SAMSKRUTAM™ is a trademark of the Sanskrit & Indology Foundation, a non-profit organisation.

Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | About - Sanskrit & Indology Foundation | About - SAMSKRUTAM
an open content project by
Sanskrit & Indology Foundation.
PoweredBy
SAMSKRUTAM.COM website hosted since 2005.
sanskrit@samskrutam.com | info@samskrutam.com