Grammar Tutorial ::: Devanagari Script


Devanagari Script is the script that we use in Sanskrit language to represent the language in writing. Almost all major works have been written in this script. To read different Sanskrit books and writings etc., we need to know Devnagari script. With this only we can understand the great works first hand, without needing a translation into another language.

The following table lists all the alphabet in Devnagari script, along with the schema that is used to write Sanskrit words using English alphabet. It will help readers in starting to read Sanskrit texts. The table has four columns.

  • Devnagari Script: This is the script in its original form without any combination with other scripts or symbols. The scripts change slightly if they are combined with other scripts and symbols, and are called yuktakshyara. Basic details of yuktakshyara is available after the table.

  • ITRANS Transliteration: Using an English language keyboard, used in computers it is not possible to input any Sanskrit alphabates. ITRANS is a transliteration scheme using which Sanskrit alphabates can be input, using English alphabates. ITRANS uses single or combination of key strokes to output Sanskrit alphabates. This is the schema that is used by Akshramala software.

  • English Transliteration: A standard English transliteration scheam is also available to write Sanskrit using English alphabet. It is slightly different from ITRANS, and is an international standard.

  • Pronunciation Guide: This gives sample English words, to indicate the way a specific Sanskrit alphabet is pronounced. Whenever a word for the exact pronunciation is not available, the nearest possible word has been given.



a a a as in up, rural.
aa   aa as in father.
i i i as in fill, lily.
ii   ii as in feed, meet.
u u u as in full, bush.
uu    U   uu as in fool, tool.
RRi    R^i   r as in Chr(i)stmas, where the i is not pronounced.
RRI    R^I   r is the prolonged of r above.
LLi   l as in fl(i)p where i is not pronounced. These r, l are vowels, to be
distinguished from the consonants r(a) and l(a),
e e e as in pray, they (always long).
ai ai ai as in word I.
o o o as in go, store.
au   prolonged o as above.
aM   m as in glum.
aH   h as in the exclamation ah where the h is heard.


k k k as in come, seek.
kh kh kh as in khaki.
g g g as in girl.
gh gh gh as in aghast.
N^    ~N   n as in monkey, puncture.
ch    c c c as in chum.
chh    Ch    C ch ch as in Churchihill when it is not pronounced as two words but the
second ch is sounded with a special stress.
j j j as in jump.
jh jh jh as pronounced in jjjjhah, with a forceful expiration with hah.
JN ~n   n as in sinje.
T   t as in term.
Th   th as in putting.
D   d as in double.
Dh   dh as in adhere.
N   n as in hunting.
t t t as in path.
th th th as in third.
d d da as in that.
dh dh dh pronounced with a deep expiration.
n n n as in nut.
p p p as in punish.
ph ph ph as in impose where p is harder.
b b b as but.
bh bh bh as in abhor.
m m m as in mud.
y y y as in loyal.
r r r as in rub.
l l l as in luck.
v    w v v as in verb.
sh    S   s as in shirt.
shh    Sh   s as in sharp.
s s s as in servant.
h h h as in her.
ksh    kSh    
dny    GY    


OM    AUM    
.n    M    

Vedic Accents





0 0  
1 1  
2 2  
3 3  
4 4  
5 5  
6 6  
7 7  
8 8  
9 9  

Yuktakhsyara means combining one or more letters together to get a new word which is pronounced differently. The pronunciation becomes a combined pronunciation of combined letters.

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