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Grammar Tutorial ::: Instrumental Case / तृतीया विभक्ति / tRRitiiya vibhakti

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Instrumental Case / तृतीया विभक्ति (tRRitiiya vibhakti): Instrumental Case or तृतीया विभक्ति (tRRitiiya vibhakti) of noun-form represents the instrumental form in a sentence. The answer that comes from the question "by what" or "with what" is the instrument in the sentense. The instrument is with what the subject or कर्ता (kartaa) is doing something. The instrument is independent of the number and gender of the subject or object.

Study the following sentences. These are in instrumental case.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. Farmer is ploughing with plough.कृषिवलः हलेन कर्षति
kRRiShivalaH halena karShati
Here plough (हल / hala), axe (परशु / parashu), pen (लेखनी / lekhanii), hand (कर / kara), teeth (दन्त / danta) and food (भोजन / bhojana), flower (पुष्प / puShpa), knowledge (विद्या / vidyaa), garland (माला / maalaa) are the instruments for the respective verbs and are in instrumental case.
2. I am cutting with axe.अहं परशुना खण्डयामि
aha.n parashunaa khaNDayaami
3. Teacher wrote using pen.गुरवः लेखन्या अलिखन्
guravaH lekhanyaa alikhan
4. You are touching with hand.त्वं करेण स्पृशसि
tva.n kareNa spRRishasi
5. Snakes bites with teeth.सर्पः दन्तैः दशति
sarpaH dantaiH dashati
6. Guest is happy with food.अतिथयः भोजनेन मोदन्ति
atithayaH bhojanena modanti
7. Garland is made using flower.माला पुष्पैः भवति
maalaa puShpaiH bhavati
8. You live with knowledge.त्वं विद्यया जिवसि
tva.n vidyayaa jivasi
9. (I) will decorate God with garland.मालाभिः देवम् अलङ्करोमि
maalaabhiH devam alaN^karomi

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "what is the farmer is ploughing with?", the answer that comes is "with the plough". So, "plough" is the instrument in the sentence and the noun-form is in instrumentsl case or tRRitiiya vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 4, if we ask the question "what are you touching with?", the answer that comes is "with hand". In case of sentence 6, if we ask the question "what is the guest happy with?", the answer that comes is "with food". So, hand and food are in instrunmental case.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing "by what" or "with what" pertaining to the verb will be in instrumental case.

Sentences 1 and 9 also follow this rule.

Besides the above rules there are some special rules where insrtumental case is used. Followings are the examples of these.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
10. Women played with the children.स्त्रियः शिशुभिः सह अक्रिडन्
striyaH shishubhiH saha akriDan
Use of words सह (saha), साकम् (saakam), सार्द्धं (saarddha.n) and समं (sama.n).
11. Teacher went with the students.गुरुः च्छात्रैः साकम् अगछत्
guruH chchhaatraiH saakam agachchhat
12. Sita roams with Rama.सीता रामेण सार्धं विहरति
siitaa raameNa saardha.n viharati
13. Krishna came with me.कृष्णः मया साकम् आगतवान्
kRRiShNaH mayaa saakam aagatavaan
14. Gopal went with him. तेन साकं गोपालः गतः
tena saaka.n gopaalaH gataH
15. Friendship with evil not worth.दुर्जनेन सह मैत्री न कर्त्तव्या
durjanena sa maitrii na karttavyaa
16. You will go with me.त्वं मया सह/साकं/सम्सं/सार्द्धं गमिष्यसि
tva.n mayaa saha/saaka.n/samsa.n/saardsha.n gamiShyasi
17. Without effort knowledge is not achievable.श्रमेण विना विद्या न लभ्यते
shrameNa vinaa vidyaa na labhyate
Use of words अन्तरेण (antareNa) and विना (vinaa).
18. Without water life is impossible.जलेन अन्तरेण जीवनम् असम्भवम्
jalena antareNa jiivanam asambhavam
19. What is life without knowledge.विद्यां विना जीवनेन किम्
vidyaa.n vinaa jiivanam kim
20. He is blind with eyes.सः अक्ष्णा काणः
saH akshNaa kaaNaH
The words - eyes (लोचन / lochana), ears (कर्ण / karNa) and foot (पाद / paada) are expressing lameness of organ or body part.
21. What shall mirror do to one without eyes.लोचनाभ्या विहिनस्य दर्पणः किं करिष्यति
lochanabhyaa vihinasya darpaNaH ki.n kariShyati
22. He is deaf with ears.सः कर्णाभ्यां वधिरः
saH karNaabhyaa.n vadhiraH
23. He is lame with foot.सः पादेन खञ्जः
saH paadena khaJNjaH
24. Rama is naughty by nature.रामः प्रकृत्या / स्वाभावेन चपलः
raamaH prakRRityaa / svaabhavena chapalaH
The words - nature (प्रकृति / prakRRiti), nature (स्वाभाव / svaabhava), speedily (वेग / vega), happily (सुख / sukha), face (अकॄति / aakRRiti), normally (प्राय / raaya), quickly (लीलया / liilayaa), quickly (त्वरया / tvarayaa), queue (क्रम / krama), caste (जाति / jaati) and wish (स्वेच्छा / svechchhaa) are expressing nature or characteristics.
25. He is running speedily.सः वेगेन धावति
saH vegena dhaavati
26. Rama is living happily.रामः सुखेन तिष्ठति
raamaH sukhena tiShThati
27. Named Ramaनाम्ना रामः
naamnaa raamaH
28. The girl is beautiful by face.बालिका अकॄत्या चारुः
baalikaa akRRityaa chaaruH
29. Simple by nature.स्वाभावेन सरलः
svaabhaavena saralaH
30. Haunters are normally poor.शवराः प्रायेण दरिद्राः
shavaraaH praayeNa daridraaH
31. Let the boy go quickly.बालः लीलया / वेगेन / त्वरया गच्छतु
baalaH liilayaa / vegena / tvarayaa gachchhatu
32. They came in one queue.एकेन क्रमेण आगच्छत
ekena krameNa aagachchhata
33. I am kshatriya (warrior) by caste.अहं जात्या क्षत्रिय
aha.n jaatyaa kshatriya
34. Boys are roaming by their wish.बालकाः स्वेच्छया भ्रमन्ति
baalakaaH svechchhayaa bhramanti
35. Rama is younger to you by one year.रामः त्वत् वर्षेण अबरः
raamaH tvat varSheNa abaraH
Use of words elder (पूर्वः / puurvaH), younger (अवरः / avaraH) and younger (परः / paraH) to compare age.
36. Gopala is younger to Shyama by a month.गोपालः श्यामात् मासेन परः
gopaalaH shyaamaat maasena paraH
37. He is elder to me by a month.सः मत् मासेन पूर्वः
saH mat maasena puurvaH
38. Sage by matted lock.जटाभिः तापसः
jaTaabhiH taapasaH
Use of words matted-lock (जटा / jaTaa), sacred-thread (उपवित / upavita) as mark of identification.
39. Brahmin by sacred-thread?उपवितेन व्राह्मणं
upavitena vraahmaNa.n
40. Body shivers due to cold.शीतेन शरीरम् कम्पते
shiitena shariiram kampate
The words - cold (शीत / shiita), sadness (दुःख / duHkha), merit (पुण्य / puNya), fever (ज्वर / jvara) and hunger (क्षुधा / kshudhaa) are expressing the cause or reason of something.
41. He is heart broken due to sadness.दुःखेन सः भग्नहृदियः
duHkhena saH bhagnahRRidiyaH
42. Hari is seen through merit.पुण्येन दृष्टः हरिः
puNyena dRRiShTaH hariH
43. He is suffering due to fever.सः ज्वरेण पीडितः
saH jvareNa piiDitaH
44. He is crying due to hunger.सः क्षुधया क्रन्दति
saH kshudhayaa krandati
45. I have need of study.मम पाठेन प्रयोजनम्
mama paaThena prayojanam
Use of words प्रयोजनम् (prayojanam), किम् (kim) and अलम् (alam) to express the need or necessity of something.
46. What is the need of quarreling?कलहेन किम्?
kalahena kim?
47. Quarrelling is waste.विवादेन अलम्
vivaadena alam
48. Do not have need in wealth?धनेन प्रयोजनं नास्ति?
dhanena prayojana.n naasti?
49. Less by knowledge.ज्ञानेन हीनः
dnyaanena hiinaH
Use of words - हीनः (hiinaH), शून्यः (shuunyaH) and ऊनः (uunaH) to express lack of something.
50. Less by wealth.धनेन शून्यः
dhanena shuunyaH
51. He is less by wealth.सः धनेन ऊनः/शून्यः/हीनः
saH dhanena uunaH / shuunyaH / hiinaH
52. The temple was built in a year.मन्दिरं वर्षेण निर्मितं अभवत्
mandira.n varSheNa nirmita.n abhavat
The words - year (वर्ष / varSha) and month (मास / maasa) represent the time taken to achieve some result.
53. Rama read Sanskrit in a month.रामः मासेन संस्कृतम् अपठत्
raamaH maasena sa.nskRRitam apaThat
54. I bought the book with five coins.अहं पञ्चमुद्राभिः पुस्तकम् क्रीतवान्
aha.n paJNchamudraabhiH pustakam kriitavaan
The words - five coins (पञ्चमुद्रा / paJNchamudraa)and ten coins (दशचमुद्रा / dashamudraa) are representing the value or cost of something.
55. He bought the toy with ten coins.सः दशचमुद्राभिः क्रीडनकं क्रीतवान्
saH dashamudraabhiH kriiDanaka.n kriitavaan
56. The lustful person is giving money to the maid.कामुकः दास्या संयच्छ्ते
kaamukaH daasyaa sa.nyachchhate
Giving something to perform some imoral or indecent act. In this case instrumental case will be used and not dative case.
57. Rama is going on a different rout.रामः अनेन मार्गेण गच्छति
raamaH anenna maargeNa gachchhati
The word - path (मार्ग / maarga) is representing the path followed.

Grammatical Rule
If the indeclinables सह (saha), साकम् (saakam), सार्द्धं (saarddha.n), समं (sama.n) etc., meaning with or along with, are used then the words governed by these will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 7 - the word सह (saha) is used to express that the women played with the children. So, the word "children" is in instrumental case. Sentences 10 and 16 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If the words अन्तरेण (antareNa) or विना (vinaa) meaning without are used the words governed by it will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 17 - the word "effort" or श्रम (shrama) is in instrumental case as the word अन्तरेण (antareNa) is used to express that without effort knowledge can not be achieved. Sentences 18 and 19 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If any word expressing lameness in any organ or body part is used then the word representing the organ or body part will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 20 - the word "eyes" or अक्ष्णा (akshNaa) is in instrumental case as this is the organ that has the lameness. Sentences 21, 22 and 23 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the nature or characteristics of someone or something will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 24 the word "nature" represents a characteristics of Rama. So, the word "nature" or स्वाभाव (svaabhava) is in instrumental case. Similarly in sentence 25 the word "speedily" is an attribute or characteristics of him running. Hence the word speedily or वेग (vega) is in instrumental case. In sentence 33 also the word caste or जाति (jaati) represents an attribute about me. So this word is in instrumental case. Sentences 24 to 34 follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If words like पूर्वः (puurvaH), परः (paraH), अवरः (avaraH) etc., are used to express a comparision in time then the word expressing the sense of time will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 35 the word "younger" or परः (paraH) is used to compare time or age, and "year" or वर्ष (varsHa) is the word expressing the sense of time. So, the word "year" is in instrumental case. Sentences 36 and 37 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing any mark of identification of a person will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 38 - sage is identified by "matted lock" or जटा (jaTaa). In other words "matted lock" is the identification symbol to identify a sage. So, the word "matted lock" is in instrumental case. Sentences 39 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the cause of something will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 40 "cold" is the reason for which body shivers. So, the word "cold" or शीत (shiita) is in instrumental case. Similarly, in sentence 41 "sadness" is the reason for his broken heart. Hence the word दुःख (duHkha) is in instrumental case. Sentences 42, 43 and 44 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If words like अलम् (alam), किं (ki.n), प्रयोजनम् (prayojanam) etc., are used to express a "sense of need or necessity" then the word representing the thing which is needed will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 45 "study is what I have need for". So, the word study or पाठ (paaTha) is in instrumental case. Similarly in sentence 47 - "quarrelling is waste" also means there is no need or necessity of quarrelling. Hence the word quarrelling or विवाद (vivaada) is in instrumental case. Sentences 46 and 48 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If words like हीन (hiina), शून्य (shuunya), ऊनः etc., are used to mean lack of something of something, then the words governed by these will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 49 - there is a lack of "knowledge" or ज्ञान (dnyaana). Similarly in sentence 50 there is a lack of "wealth" or धन (dhana). So, thes words are in instrumental case. Sentence 51 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If the sentencec means achievement of some result after some time then the word expressing the time will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 52 the temple was built in a year. In other words the result was achieved in a year. The word "year" is expressing the time after which the result was achieved. So, the word "year" or वर्ष (varSha) is in instrumental case. Sentence 53 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the value or cost of something will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 54 "five coins" express the cost or value of the book. So, it is in instrumental case. Similarly in sentence 55 "ten coins" is the cost of the toy. So, "ten coins" is in instrumental case.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the person to whom something is given to perform some imoral or indecent act will be in instrumental case and not in dative case.

In sentence 56 the lust person is giving money to the maid in return of an immoral. So, the word "maid" is in instrumental case instead of dative case.


Grammatical Rule
Word expressing the path that is followed will be in instrumental case.

In sentence 57 the word "rout" or मार्ग (maarga) is in instrumental case as it represents the path that is being followed or taken.

Instrumental Case (तृतीया विभक्ति / tRRitiiyaa vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M - पुंबालेन
baalena
बालाभ्याम्
baalaabhyaam
बालैः
baalaiH
-
Creeper
लता / lataa
F - स्त्रीलतया
latayaa
लताभ्याम्
lataabhyaam
लताभिः
lataabhiH
-
River
नदी / nadii
F - स्त्रीनद्या
nadyaa
नदीभ्याम्
nadiibhyaam
नदीभिः
nadiibhiH
-
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N - नपुंफलेन
phalena
फलाभ्याम्
phalaabhyaam
फलैः
phalaiH
-


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