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Grammar Tutorial ::: Accusative Case / द्वितीया विभक्ति / dvitiiyaa vibhakti

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Accusative Case / द्वितीया विभक्ति (dvitiiyaa vibhakti): Accusative Case or द्वितीया विभक्ति (dvitiiyaa vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "to what" or "to whom" of the sentence. In other words accusative case represents the object or कर्म (karmaa) in the sentence.

Study the following sentences. These are in accusative case.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. The painter is painting a portrait.चित्रकारः चित्रं लिखति
chitrakaaraH chitra.n likhati
In these sentences portrait (चित्र / chitra), wood (काष्ठ / kaaShTha), songs (पद्य / padya), city (नगरी / nagarii), stanza (श्लोक / shloka), permission (अनुमति / anumati), school (विद्यालय / vidyaalaya) and book (पुस्तक / pustaka) are objects.
2. The carpenter is chopping wood.तक्षकः काष्ठं तक्षति
takshakaH kaaShTha.n takshati
3. Poets are writing songs.कवयः पद्यानि लिखन्ति
kavayaH padyaani likhanti
4. Enemies are attacking the city.शत्रवः नगरीम् आक्रामन्ति
shatravaH nagariim aakraamanti
5. Studetns are singing the stanzas.च्छात्राः श्लोकान् गायन्ति
chchhaatraaH shlokaan gaayanti
6. Commette gave the permission.समिति अनुमतिम् अयच्छत्
samiti anumatim ayachchhat
7. Boy is going to school.बालः विद्यालम् गच्छति
baalaH vidyaalayam gachchhati
8. Girl is reading the book.बाला पुस्तकम् पठति
baalaa pustakam paThati

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "what is the painter painting?", the answer that comes is "the portrait". So, "portrait" is the object in the sentence and the noun-form is in accusative case or dvitiiyaa vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 6, if we ask the question "what did the commette gave?", the answer that comes is "permission". In case of sentence 7, if we ask the question "where is the boy going to?", the answer that comes is "school".

So, answer to the question "to what", "to whom" or "to where" etc., is the object in the sentence and is always in accusative case. The verb form is independent of the number or वचन (vachana) of the object.

Grammatical Rule
In active voice sentences the object always inaccusative case.

Besides the above rule there are few special rules where accusative case is used. Followings are examples of these.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
9. Tigress lives in the forest.व्याघ्री वनम् अधितिष्ठति / अधिवसति
vyaaghrii vanam adhitiShThati / adhivasati
Verbs तिष्ठति (tiShThati) and वसति (vasati) prefixed with prepositions (उपसर्ग / upasarga) अधि (adhi) or उप (upa).
10. Parvati lives in the Himalays.पार्वती कैलासगिरीम् अधिवसति
paarvatii kailaasagiriim adhivasati
11. Rama lives in village.रामः ग्रामं उपवसति/अधिवसति
raamaH graama.n upavasati / adhivasati
12. Around the Himalayas there are forests.हिमालयम् अभितः अरण्यानि सन्ति
himaalayam abhitaH araNyaani santi
Use of indeclinable अभितः (abhitaH), उभयतः (ubhayataH), समया (samayaa), निकषा (nikaShaa), अन्तरा (antaraa) and परितः (paritaH) to represent location.
13. Inside the pond there is a temple.सरोवरं अन्तरा मन्दिरं अस्ति
sarovara.n antaraa mandira.n asti
14. Around the house there is a wall.गृहं परितः प्राचीरं अस्ति
gRRiha.n paritaH praachiira.n asti
15. Near the school there is a garden.विद्यालयं निकषा उद्यानं अस्ति
vidyaalaya.n nikaShaa udyaana.n asti
16. Both side of river there are hills.नदीं उभयतः सोपानानि सन्ति
nadii.n ubhayataH sopaanaani santi
17. Inside the pond there are blue lotuses.सरोवरं अन्तरा नीलोत्पलानि सन्ति
sarovara.n antaraa niilotpalaani santi
18. Near the school there are shops.विद्यालयं समया आपणाः सन्ति
vidyaalaya.n samayaa aapaNaaH santi
19. Solders went on both sides of the road.सैनिकाः मार्गम् उभयतः अगच्छत्
sainikaaH maargam ubhayataH agachchhat
20. Behind father son is going.पितरं अनु पुत्रः गच्छति
pitara.n anu putraH gachchhati
Use of indeclinable अनु (anu), उपयुपरि (upayupari), अध्यधि (adhyaaghi), अधोधः (adhodhaH) representing before, after, above, towards top location.
21. There are many fruits above (on top of) the tree.वृक्षं उपयुपरि वहुनि फलानि सन्ति
vRRiksha.n upayupari vahuni phalaani santi
22. The girl is singing beautifully.बालिका मधुरं गायति
baalikaa madhura.n gaayati
Use of verbal adjective or क्रियाविशेषण (kriyaavisheShaNa).
23. The boy is looking with surprise.बालः साश्चर्यम् पश्यति
baalaH saashcharyam pashyati
24. It is raining everywhere in the country.देशं सर्वतः वर्षा भवन्ति
desha.n sarvataH varShaa bhavanti
Expressing spread of time or space.
25. Madhu read grammar for a month.मधुः मासं व्याकरणं पठितवान्
madhuH maasa.n vyaakaraNa.n paThitavaan
26. The mountain spreads two yojanas.गिरिः द्वियोजनं वर्त्तते
giriH dviyojana.n varttate
27. Without teacher there is no knowledge.गुरुं विना विद्या नास्ति
guru.n vinaa vidyaa naasti
Use of indeclinable विना (vinaa), ऋते (RRite) etc.
28. Go upto home.गृहं यावत् गच्छ
gRRiha.n yaavat gachchha
rowspan="2" | Use of words प्रति (prati), यावत् (yaavat) etc.
29. Tiger is running towards the goat.व्याघ्रः छागं प्रति धावति
vyaagraH chhaaga.n prati dhaavati
30. Fie on fool.मुर्खं धिक्
murkha.n dhik
Use of word धिक् dhik.

Grammatical Rule
If the verbs तिष्ठति (tiShThati) and वसति (vasati) meaning lives or stays are prefixed with the preposition (उपसर्ग / upasarga) अधि (adhi) or उप (upa), then the word expressing the location will follow accusative case instade of locative case.

In sentence 9 above the answer to question "where does tigress live?" should be "in the forest". The noun-form should be in locative case i.e., वने (vane). However since the verb वसति (vasati) is prefixed with preposition अधि (adhi) the accusative case वनम् (vanam) is used instade of locative case. Sentence 10 and 11 follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule
If the indeclinables अभितः (abhitaH), उभयतः (ubhayataH), समया (samayaa), निकषा (nikaShaa), अन्तरा (antaraa) and परितः (paritaH) etc., are in use then the word expressing location will be in accusative case.

In sentence 12 above the answer to question "where are the forests?" should be "around Himalayas". Similarly in sentence 13 if we ask the question "where is the temple?", the answer will be "inside the pond". However in these case indeclinables अभितः (abhitaH) and परितः (paritaH) are used to express the location. Hence the words expressing the location (Himalayas and pond) are in accusative case. Sentences 12, 13, 14, 15, 15, 17, 18 and 19 follow the same rule.

Grammatical Rule
When indeclinables अनु (anu), उपयुपरि (upayupari), अध्यधि (adhyaadhi) etc., are used, words governed by these will be in accusative case.

Sentences 20 and 21 follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule
Verbal Adjective (क्रियाविशेषण / kriyaavisheShaNa) expressing the characteristic or attribute of the verb in the sentence will be in accusative case.

In sentence 22 above if the question is asked "how is the girl singing?" the answer that comes is "beautifully". Here beautifully is an attribute or verbal adjective for the verb "singing". Since the word beautifully is a verbal adjective or क्रियाविशेषण (kriyaavisheShaNa) it is in accusative case. Sentence 23 also follows this rule.

Grammatical Rule
When a word represents a spread of time or space then it takes the accusative form.

In sentence 24 above the word "everywhere" expresses a spread of space. So, the word country has taken theaccusative case देशं (desha.n) instead of locative case देशे (deshe). Similarly in sentence 25"for a month" expresses a span of time. So, the word month has taken the accusative case मासं (maasa.n). Sentence 26 follow this rule as it expresses a span of space.

Grammatical Rule
When words विना (vinaa) or ऋते (RRite) meaning "without" is used, words governed by it will be in accusative case.

In sentence 27 the word गुरु (guru) is in accusative case as the indeclinable विना (vinaa) is in use.

Grammatical Rule
If the words प्रति (prati) and यावत् (yaavat) are in use then the words governed by these will be in accusative case.

Sentences 28 and 29 follow this rule.

Grammatical Rule
When word धिक् (dhik) is used, words governed by it will be in accusative case.

In sentence 30 the word मुर्ख (murkha) is in accusative case as the word धिक् (dhik) is in use.

Accusative Case (द्वितीया विभक्ति / dvitiiyaa vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M - पुंबालम्
baalam
बालौ
baalau
बालान्
baalaan
-
Creeper
लता / lataa
F - स्त्रीलताम्
lataam
लते
late
लताः
lataaH
-
River
नदी / nadii
F - स्त्रीनदीम्
nadiim
नद्यौ
nadau
नदीः
nadiiH
-
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N - नपुंफलम्
phalam
फले
phale
फलानि
phalaani
-


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