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Grammar Tutorial ::: Dative Case / चतुर्थी विभक्ति / chaturthii vibhakti

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Dative Case / चतुर्थी विभक्ति (chaturthii vibhakti): Dative Case or चतुर्थी विभक्ति (chaturthii vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "to whom" or "for whom" of the sentence. In other words dative case represents the dative in the sentense.

Study the following sentences. These are in dative case.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. Give rice to the beggar.भिक्षुकायः तण्डूलं देहि
bhikshukaayaH taNDuula.n dehi
The words भिक्षुक (bhikshuka), युस्मद् (yusmad), रुग्ण (rugNa) and निर्धन (nirdhana) represent the person to whom something is given.
2. I am giving prize to him.अहं तस्मै पुरस्कारं ददामि
aha.n tasmai puraskaara.n dadaami
3. Doctor is giving medicine to the patient.वैद्यः रुग्णाय औषधं यच्छति
vaidyaH rugNaaya auShadha.n yachchhati
4. Let the rich give money to poor.धनिकः निर्धनाय धनं यछतु
dhanikaH nirdhanaaya dhana.n yachhatu
5. The lustful person is giving money to the maid.कामुकः दास्या संयच्छ्ते
kaamukaH daasyaa sa.nyachchhate
Giving something to perform some imoral or indecent act. In this case instrumental case will be used and not dative case.



In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "give rice to whom?", the answer that comes is "the beggar". So, "beggar" is the dative in the sentence and the noun-form is in dative case or chaturthii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 3, if we ask the question "doctor gave medicine to whom?", the answer that comes is "patient".

So, answers to the question "to whom" or "for whom" etc., is the dative in the sentence and is always in dative case. The verb form is independent of the number or वचन (vachana) of the subject or object.

Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the person to whom something is given will be in dative case.

Sentence 1, 2, 3 and 4 follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the person to whom something is given to perform some imoral or indecent act will be in instrumental case and not in dative case.

In sentence 5 the lust person is giving money to the maid in return of an immoral. So, the word "maid" is in instrumental case instead of dative case.


Besides the above rules there are few special rules where dative case is used. Followings are examples of these.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
6. Let the author write for the paper.लेखकः पत्रिकायै लेखं लिखतु
lekhakaH patrikaayai lekha.n likhatu
The words पत्रिका (patrikaa), सुवर्णम्हार (suvarNahaara) and धर्म (dharma) represent the things for which something is needed.
7. Gold is for necklace.सुवर्णम्हाराय हाटकम्
suvarNahaaraaya haaTakam
8. Wife should be accepted for merit/dharma.धर्माय पत्नी ग्रहणीया
dharmaaya patnii grahaNiiyaa
9. Wealth becomes egoism. ऐश्चर्यम् अह्ङ्काराय भवति
eishcharyam ahaN^kaaraaya bhavati
The words अह्ङ्कार (ahaN^kaara), परपिडन (parapiDana) and परोपकार (paropakaara) represent the thing into which something else transforms.
10. Power is to torment others.शक्तिः परपिडनाय भवति
shaktiH parapiDanaaya bhavati
11. Let power be for others' good.शक्तिः परोपकाराय भवतु
shaktiH paropakaaraaya bhavatu
12. Lakshmi hates the knowledgable.लक्ष्मीः पण्डिताय असूयति
lakshmiiH paNDitaaya asuuyati
Use of words कृध्यति (kRRidhyati), दृह्यति (dRRihyati), ईर्ष्यति iirShyati), असूयति (asuuyati) etc., expressing hate or dislike.
13. He hates the clever.सः चतुराय असूयति
saH chaturaaya asuuyati
14. King is angry on the enemies.रजा शत्रुवे कृध्यति
raajaa shatruve kRRidhayati
15. Gopala is angry on Rama.गोपालः रामाय दृह्यति
gopaalaH raamaaya dRRihyati
16. Do you like sweets?मोदकं तुभ्यं रोचते वा?
modaka.n tubhya.n rochate vaa?
Use of words like रोचते (rochate) etc., expressing fondness or liking for something.
17. Girls like flowers.बालिकाः पुष्पेभ्यः स्पृहयन्ति
baalikaaH puShpebhyaH spRRihayanti
18. Let everyone like knowledge.सर्वे ज्ञानाय स्पृहयन्तु
sarve dnyaaya spRRihayantu
19. Ladies like flowers.पुष्पाणि तरुणीभ्यः रोचन्ते
puShpaaNi taruNibhyaH rochante
20. I like milk.मह्यं दुग्धं रोचते
mahyaa.n dugdha.n rochate
21. Child likes to play.शिशवे क्रीडा रोचते
shishave kriDaa rochate
22. Who does not like sweets.कस्मै मोदकं न स्वदते?
kasmai modaka.n na svadate?
23. Salute to teacher.गुरवे नमः
gurave namaH
Use of words like नमः (namaH), स्वस्ति (svasti), स्वाहा (svaaha), अलं (ala.n), बषट् (baShaT) etc.

Word Meanings:
namaH - salute, svaaha - offered, baShaT - offered, svasti - let good happen.
24. Salute to Narayana.नारायणाय नमः
naaraayaNaaya namaH
25. Offered to Indra.इन्द्राय स्वाह
indraaya svaaha
26. Offered to fire.अग्नये बषट्
agneya baShaT
27. Let good happen to all.सर्वेभ्यः स्वस्ति
sarvebhyaH svasti
28. Let the guest come home.अतिथयः गृहाय/गृहम् आगच्छन्तु
atithayaH gRRihaaya/gRRiham aagachchhantu
Word expressing the target destination for actions like going or coming can be in accusative case or dative case.
29. I will go to village.अहं ग्रामाय / ग्रामम् गछामि
aga.n graamaaya / graamam gachhaami
30. Shyama is borrowing one hundred from Rama.श्यामः रामाय शतं धारयति
shyaamaH raamaaya shata.n dhaarayati
Word expressing the person from whom something is borrowed.
31. I do not owe anything to anyone.अहं कस्मै किञ्चित् न धारयामि
aha.n kasmai kiJNchit na dhaarayaami
32. (Lord Vishnu) Hari owes liberation to worshippers.हरिः भक्ताय मोक्षं धारयति
hariH bhaktaaya moksha.n dhaarayati
33. Mother is showing moon to son.माता पूत्राय चन्द्रं दर्शायति
maataa puutraaya chandra.n darshayati
The person with whom the subject relates something through his/her action.
34. Tell Gangadatta about me.गङ्गदत्ताय मत् सन्देशं कथय
gaN^gadattaaya mat sandesha.n kathaya

Grammatical Rule
The word expressiong the purpose for which certain action is taken or something is needed will be in dative case.

Sentence 6 above means the author should write for the paper. In other words the writing action is for the "paper". So, paper takes the dative case. Similarly in sentence 7 gold is needed for neckless. So, neckless is in the dative case. Sentence 8 also follows the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the object into which another object transforms will be in dative case.

In sentence 9 above - wealth turns or transforms into egoism. So, "egoism" is in dative case the object into which wealth transforms. Sentence 10 and 11 also follow the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the person (or thing) against whom (or which) anger or hatered is shown will be in dative case.

In sentence 12 above - Laxmi shows hatered towards the "knowledgable". So, the word knowledgable is in dative case. Similarly in sentence 14 the King shows anger towards enemies. So, the word enemy is in dative case. Sentence 13 and 15 also follow the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
When verbs meaning "liking" are used, the word expressing the person to whom it is a matter of liking will be in dative case.

In sentence 17 above - girls like flowers or in other words flowers are a metter of liking to the girls. So, "girl" is in dative case. Similarly in sentence 21 play is a matter of liking to "child". So, the child is in dative case. Sentence 16, 18, 19, 20, and 22 also follow the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
When the words नमः (namaH), स्वस्ति (svasti), स्वाहा (svaahaa), अलं (ala.n) and बषट् (baShaT) are used the words expressing the object of their reference will be in dative case.

In sentence 23 above "teacher" is the object of reference of the word नमः (namaH) or salute. So, the word teacher or गुरु (guru) is in dative case. Sentence 24, 25, 26 and 27 also follow the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
When verbs meaning going or coming are used the words expressing the destination will be either in accusative case or dative case.

In sentence 28 above "home" is in dative case (or accusative case) as home is the destination. Sentence 29 also follows the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
When something is borrowed from others the person from whom the thing is borrowed will be in dative case.

In sentence 30 above Shyam has borrowed money from Rama. So, "Rama" is in dative case. Similarly in sentence 32 Hari (Lord Vishnu) borrows liberation or मोक्ष (moksha) from the worshipper. So, the word भक्त (bhakta) or worshipper is in dative case. Sentence 31 also follows the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
The person with whom the subject relates something through his or her action will be in dative case.

In sentence 33 above mother is showing the moon to son. In other words mother the subject in the sentence with her action of showing is relating son with the moon. So, the word son or पुत्र (putra) is in dative case.

Dative Case (चतुर्थी विभक्ति / chaturthii vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M - पुंबालाय
baalaaya
बालाभ्याम्
baalaabhyaam
बालेभ्यः
baalebhyaH
-
Creeper
लता / lataa
F - स्त्रीलतायै
lataayai
लताभ्याम्
lataabhyaam
लताभ्यः
lataabhyaH
-
River
नदी / nadii
F - स्त्रीनद्यै
nadyai
नदीभ्याम्
nadiibhyaam
नदीभ्यः
nadiibhyaH
-
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N - नपुंफलाय
phalaaya
फलाभ्याम्
phalaabhyaam
फलेभ्यः
phalebhyaH
-


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