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Grammar Tutorial ::: Locative Case / सप्तमी विभक्ति / saptamii vibhakti

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Locative Case / सप्तमी विभक्ति (saptamii vibhakti): Locative Case or सप्तमी विभक्ति (saptamii vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "where" of the sentence. In other words locative case represents the locative in the sentense.

Study the following sentences. These are in locative case.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. Lotuses are in the lake.कमलानि कासरे सन्ति
kamalaani kaasare santi
The words lake (कासर / kaasara), creeper (लता / lataa), forest अरण्य / araNya), city (नगरी / nagarii), bed (शज्या / shajyaa), land (भूमि / bhuumi), Mahabharata (महाभारत / mahaabhaarata) and all (सर्व / sarva) are expressing location of something or someone.
2. Flowers bloom in the creeper.पुष्पाणि लतायां विकसन्ति
puShpaaNi lataayaa.n vikasanti
3. Elephants roam in the forest.गजाः अरण्ये सञ्चरन्ति
gajaaH araNye saJNcharanti
4. Offices are in the city.कार्यालयाः नगरीशु भवन्ति
kaaryaalayaaH nagariishu bhavanti
5. Child is sleeping on the bed.शिशुः शज्यायां शेते
shishuH shajyaayaa.n shete
6. Leaves fall on the ground.पर्णानि भूम्यां पतन्ति
parNaani bhuumyaa.n patanti
7. There are many stories in Mahabharata.महाभारते अनेककथाः विद्यन्ते
mahaabhaarate anekakathaaH vidyante
8. Atma is in everybody.सर्वस्मिन् आत्मा विद्यते
sarvasmin aatmaa vidyate

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "where are the lotuses?", the answer that comes is "lake". So, "lake" is the locative in the sentence and the noun-form is in locative case or saptamii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 3, if we ask the question "elephants roam where?", the answer that comes is "forest".

So, answer that comes from the question "where" is the locative in the sentense and is always in locative case. Followings are the rules where locative case is used.

Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the location of something or someone will be in locative case.

Sentence 1 to 8 follow this rule.


Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where loctive case is used. Followings are the examples of these.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
9. He is sitting on the seat.सः आसन्दे उपविशति
saH aasande upavishati
Expressing the thing on which one sits or stands etc.
10. Students are running on the road.च्छात्राः मार्गेशु धावन्ति
chchhaatraaH maargeshu dhaavanti
11. Peackoks are dancing on the mountain.मयूराः गिरिशु नृत्यन्ति
mayuuraaH girishu nRRityanti
12. Young boys are swiming in the river.तरुणाः नद्यां तरन्ति
taruNaaH nadyaa.n taranti
13. Girls are playing in the play ground.बालिकाः क्रीडाङ्गणे क्रिडन्ति
baalikaaH kriiDaaN^gaNe kriDanti
14. I will go in the evening.अहं सायंकाले गच्छामि
aha.n saaya.nkaale gachchhaami
Expressing the time of action.
15. Holiday is on Sunday.विरामः भानुवासरे भवति
viraamaH bhaanuvaasare bhavati
16. When sun rises, lotus blooms.सूर्ये उदिते पद्मं विकसति
suurye udite padma.n vikasati
Expressing the action of one resulting in the action of another.
17. When moon rises, lillies bloom.चन्द्रे उदिते कुमुदानि विकसन्ति
chandre udite kumudaani vikasanti
18. Among animals human beings are the best.प्राणिनां / प्राणिषु नराः श्रेष्ठाः
praaNinaa.n / praaNiShu naraaH shreShThaaH
Comparision in group.
19. Do good as if death is holding by hair.गृहित एव केशेषु मृत्युना धर्ममाचरेत्
gRRihita eva kesheShu mRRityunaa dharmamaacharet
Expressing part of body held separately.
20. Friend made me sit by holding my hands.सखा मां करे धृत्वा उपवेशयत्
sakhaa maa.n kare dhRRitvaa upaveshayat
21. Father loves son.पिता पुत्रे स्निह्यति
pitaa putre snihyati
Expressing trust, fondness, love, anger, worship etc., in someone.
22. You trust me.त्वं मयि विश्वसिहि
tva.n mayi vishvasihi
23. Respect father.पितरि भक्तिं कुरु
pitari bhakti.n kuru



Grammatical Rule
The word expressing something on which someone or something sits or stands will be in locative case.

In sentence 9 if we ask the question "where is he seating?" or "on what is he seating?", the answer that comes is on the seat. So, the word "seat" or आसन्द (aasand) is in locative case as it is expressing the thing on which someone is seating. Sentence 10 to 13 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the time of action in response to the question on verb as "when" will be in locative case.

In sentence 14 answer to the question "when shall I go?" is "in the evening" or "evening". So, the word "evening" or सायंकाल (saaya.nkaala) is in locative case. Sentence 15 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
When the action of one results in action of another, the thing whose action occurs first will be in locative case.

In sentence 16 - lotus blooms when sun rises. In other words the action of sun's rising results in the action of the lotus blooming. So, the word "sun" or सूर्य (suurya) is in locative case. Sentence 17 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If a comparision in a group is being made then the word expressing the group will be in locative case or in genitive case.

In sentence 18 the word "animal" or प्राणि (praaNi) is in locative case (or alternatively genitive case), as it represents the group in which human beings are the best.


Grammatical Rule
If a part of body is held separately then the word expressing the part will be in locative case.

In sentence 20 - my friend is holding my hand (separately) to make me seat. So, the word "hand" or कर (kara) is in locative case as this is the part of body which is being held separately. Sentence 19 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
If verbs meaning trust, fondness, love, anger, worship etc., are used, the person in whom such trust or fondness is shown will be in locative case.

In sentence 21 the verb स्निह्यति (snihyati) is used to express father's love in his son. So, the word "son" or पुत्र (putra) is in locative case. Sentence 22 and 23 also follow this rule.


Locative Case (सप्तमी विभक्ति / saptamii vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M - पुंबाले
baale
बालयोः
baalayoH
बालेषु
baaleShu
-
Creeper
लता / lataa
F - स्त्रीलतायाम्
lataayaam
लतयोः
latayoH
लतासु
lataasu
-
River
नदी / nadii
F - स्त्रीनद्याम्
nadyaam
नद्योः nadyoHनदीषु
nadiiShu
-
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N - नपुंफले
phale
फलयोः
phalayoH
फलेषु
phaleShu
-


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