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Grammar Tutorial ::: Genitive Case / षष्ठी विभक्ति / ShaShThii vibhakti

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Genitive Case / षष्ठी विभक्ति (ShaShThii vibhakti): Genitive Case or षष्ठी विभक्ति (ShaShThii vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "whose" of the sentence. In other words genitive case represents the genitive in the sentense.

Study the following sentences. These are in genitive case.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. Son of Dasaratha.दशरथस्य पुत्रः
dasharathasya putraH
Person or thing whose relationship with another is being expressed.
2. Krishna's friend.कृष्णस्य सखा
kRRiShNasya sakhaa
3. Rise of sun.सूर्यस्य उदयः
suuryasya udayaH
4. Water of river.नद्याः जलम्
nadyaaH jalam
5. Whiteness of moon.चन्द्रिकाया धवलता
chandrikaayaa dhavalataa
6. Heat of fire.अग्नेः ज्वाला
agneH jvaalaa
7. Vrihaspati is the teacher of Gods.देवानां गुरुः बृहस्पतिः
devaanaa.n guruH bRRihaspatiH
8. Demons are the desciples of Sukracharya.शुक्राचार्यस्य शिष्याः असुराः
shukraachaaryasya shiShyaaH asuraaH
9. Women's jewellary.नारीणाम् आभरणम्
naariiNaam aabharaNam
10. This is my opinion.एतत् मम मतम्
etat mama matam
11. Ganapati has four hands.गणपतेः चत्वारः हस्ताः
gaNapateH chatvaaraH hastaaH

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "whose son?", the answer that comes is "Dasaratha". So, "Dasaratha" is the genitive in the sentence and the noun-form is in genitive case or ShaShThi vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 4, if we ask the question "whose water?", the answer that comes is "river".

So, answer that comes from the question "whose" is the genitive in the sentense and is always in genitive case.Followings are the rules where genitive case is used.

Grammatical Rule
The word denoting a peron or thing whose relationship with another is being expressed will be in genitive case.

In sentence 1 to 11 the words expressing relationship to someone or something are in genitive case.


Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where genitive case is used. Followings are the examples of these.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
12. Among Pandavas Dharmaraja (Yudhisthira) is best.पाण्डवानां धर्मराजः ज्येष्ठः
paaNDavaanaa.n dharmaraajaH jyeShThaH
Comparision in group.
13. Among trees coconut is the best.वृक्षाणां नालिकेरः श्रेष्ठः
vRRikshaaNaa.n naarikeraH shreShThaH
14. There is no comparision of Arjuna.अर्जुनस्य तुला नास्ति
arjunasya tulaa naasti
Use of words तुला (tulaa), उपमा (upamaa) etc., for comparision.
15. Beauty of Rama.रामस्य उपमा
raamasya upamaa
16. To the south of the school huge banayan tree is there.विद्यालयस्य दक्षिणात् एकः महान् वटवृक्षः
vidyaalayasya dakshiNaat ekaH mahaan vaTavRRikshaH
Expressins direction or location in relation to another using words पुरः (puraH), पुरस्तात् (purastaat), पुरतः (purataH), अग्रतः (agrataH), पृष्ठतः (pRRiShThataH), अधः (adhaH), अधस्तात् (adhastaat) etc.
17. In front of the teacher students are standing.शिक्षकस्य पुरः च्छात्राः तिष्ठन्ति
shikshakasya puraH chchhaatraaH tiShThanti
18. Child is playing behind mother.मातुः पुरस्तात् शिशुः क्रीडति
maatuH purastaat shishuH kriiiDati
19. Water flows below ground.भूमेः अधस्तात्/अधः जलं बर्त्तते
bhuumeH adhastaat/adhaH jala.n barttate
20.To the north of the village hospital is there.ग्रामस्य उत्तरात् चिकित्सालयः अस्ति
graamasya uttaraat chikitsaalayaH asti


Grammatical Rule
If a comparision in a group is being made then the word expressing the group will be in genitive case (or alternatively in locative case).

In sentence 13 above the sentence means - coconut tree is best "among the trees". So, the word trees is in genetive case (or alternatively locative case) as it represents the group in which coconut tree is best. Similarly in sentence 12 the word "pandavas" is in genetive case.


Grammatical Rule
If words तुला (tulaa), उपमा (upamaa) etc., expressing comparision are used then word expressing the person or thing being compared will be in genitive case.

In sentence 14 the word "Arjuna" is in genitive case as this is being compared with the use of word तुला or tulaa. Sentence 15 also follows the same rule.


Grammatical Rule
If the words पुरः (puraH), पुरस्तात् (purastaat), पुरतः (purataH), अग्रतः (agrataH), पृष्ठतः (pRRiShThataH), अधः (adhaH), अधस्तात् (adhastaat) etc., are used to express direction or location of an object in relation to another, the word expressing the object will be in genitive case.

In sentence 16 the word south or दक्षिणात् (dakshiNaat) is used to express location of the banayan tree in relation to the school. So, the word school is in genitive case. Similarly in sentence 18 the word behind or पुरस्तात् (purastaat) expresses the location of the child in relation to mother. So, the word mother is in genitive case.

Sentences 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 follow this rule.


Genitive Case (षष्ठी विभक्ति / ShaShThii vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M - पुंबालस्य
baalasya
बालयोः
baalayoH
बालानाम्
baalaanaam
-
Creeper
लता / lataa
F - स्त्रीलतायाः
lataayaaH
लतयोः
latayoH
लतानाम्
lataanaam
-
River
नदी / nadii
F - स्त्रीनद्याः
nadyaaH
नदीभ्याम्
nadiibhyaam
नदीनाम्
nadiinaam
-
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N - नपुंफलस्य
phalasya
फलयोः
phalayoH
फलानाम्
phalaanaam
-


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