SAMSKRUTAM

SAMSKRUTAM Studies

Welcome Guest!  | Login
Home | Sanskrit Editor | Help (?) |  »

Literature

Tutorial

Resources

Miscellaneous

SAMSKRUTAM

Grammar Tutorial ::: Ablative Case / पञ्चमी विभक्ति / paJNchamii vibhakti

RSS

Ablative Case / पञ्चमी विभक्ति (paJNchamii vibhakti): Ablative Case or पञ्चमी विभक्ति (paJNchamii vibhakti) of noun-form represents the "from whom/what" of the sentence. In other words ablative case represents the ablative in the sentense.

Study the following sentences. These are in ablative case.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. Leaf fell from the tree.वृक्षात् पर्णं/पत्रं अपतत्
vRRikshaat parNa.n / patra.m apatat
The words tree (वृक्ष / vRRiksha), tree (तरु / taru) and horse (अश्व / ashva) represent the source of separation.
2. Fruits are falling from the trees.फलानि तरुभ्यः पतन्ति
phalaani tarubhyaH patanti
3. He fall from the running horse.सः धावतः अश्वात् पतितः
saH dhaavataH ashvaat patitaH
4. I am coming from the school.अहं विद्यालयात् आगच्छामि
aha.n vidyaalayaat aagachchhaami
The words school (विद्यालय / vidyaalaya) and heaven (स्वर्ग / svarga) represent the source of coming or going.
5. Gods come from heaven.देवताः स्वर्गात् आगछन्ति
devataaH svargaat aagachchhanti

In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "leaf fell from what?", the answer that comes is "the tree". So, "tree" is the ablative in the sentence and the noun-form is in ablative case or paJNchamii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 4, if we ask the question "where am I coming from?", the answer that comes is "school".

So, answer to the question "from whom/what/where" is the ablative in the sentence and is always in ablative case. The verb-form is independent of the number or वचन (vachana) of the subject or object. Followings are the rules where ablative case is used.

Grammatical Rule
When an object is separated from another the word expressing the object from which the separation happened will be in ablative case.

Sentence 1, 2 and 3 follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
When someone or something is coming from a place the word expressing the source will be in ablative case.

Sentence 4 and 5 follow this rule.

Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where ablative case is used. Followings are the examples of these.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englishसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
6. Waterfall is flowing from the mountain.निर्झरः गिरेः स्रवति
nirjharaH gireH sravati
The words mountain (गिरि / giri) and Himalayas (हिमवत / himavata) represent the origin or source.
7. (River) Ganges flows from Himalayas.हिमवतः गङ्गा प्रभहति
himavataH gaN^gaat prabhahati
8. Animal fears tiger.मृगः व्याघ्रात् विभेति
mRRigaH byaaghraat vibheti
The words tiger (व्याघ्र/ byaaghraat), lion (सिंह/ si.nha) and police (आरक्षक / aarakshaka) are the sources of fear.
9. Deer fears tiger.हरिणः व्याघ्रात् त्रस्यति
hariNaH vyaaghraat trasyati
10. Elephants fear lion.गजाः सिंहात् त्रस्यन्ति
gajaaH si.nhaat trasyanti
11. Thief fears police.चौरः आरक्षकात् विभेति
chauraH aarakshakaat vibheti
12. Police protects from thief.आरक्षकः चौरात् त्रायते / रक्षते
aarakshakaH chauraat traayate / rakshate
The words thief (चौर / chaura), hell (नरकभय / narakabhaya) and enemy (शत्रू / shatruu) represent things from which protected.
13. Good work protects from fear of hell.साधितं तु धर्मकार्यं त्रायते नरकभयात्
saadhita.n tu dharmakaarya.n traayate narakabhayaat.
14. Solders protect citizens from enemies.सैनिकाः शत्रुभ्यः नागरिकान् रक्षन्ते
sainikaaH shatrubhyaH naagarikaan rakshante
15. He accepts defeat from study.सः अध्ययनात् पराजयते
saH adhyanaaat paraajayate.
Use of word परा + जयते (paraa + jayate) to express defeat.
16. Good people accept defeat from sin.धार्मिकः पपात् पराजयते
dhaarmikaH paapaat paraajayate
17. He is baring the cows from paddy.सः धानेभ्यः गां वारयति
saH dhaanebhyaH gaa.n vaarayati
The words paddy (धान / dhaana) and sin (पाप / paapa) are things from which restrained.
18. Bars from sin and employs in merit.पापन्निवारयति योजयते हिताय
paapannivaarayaati
19. Krishna is hiding from mother.कृष्णः मातुः निलीयते
kRRiShNaH maatuH niliiyate
The words mother (मातृ / maatRRi) and teacher (गुरु / guru) represent someone from whom hiding.
20. Student is hiding from teacher.च्छात्रः गुरुः निलीयते
chchhaatraH guruH niliiyate
21. Gauri does not read due to lazyness.गौरी आलस्यात् न पठति
gaurii aalasyaat n apaThati
The word lazyness or आलस्य (aalasya) represents the cause of something.
22. Fruit is created from flower.पुष्पात् फलं प्रजायते
pueHpaat phalam parajaayate
The words flower (पुष्प / pueHpa) and lotus (पद्म / padma) are sources of creation.
23. Honey is created from lotus.पद्मात् मधु प्रजायते
padmaat madhu prajaayate
24. Good people hate sin.धार्मिकः पापात् जुगुप्सते
dhaarmikaH papaat jugupsate
Use of verbs like hate (जुगुप्सते / jugupsate), escapes (विरमति / viramati) etc., expressing hate or dislike.
25. He escapes from reading.सः पठनात् विरमति
saH paThanaat viramati.
26. Mango is better than Guava.आम्रफलं दाडिमात् श्रेष्ठम्
aamraphala.n daaNDimaat shreShTham
Use of superlative or comparative adjectives like better (श्रेष्ठ / shreShTha) earlier (पूर्वः / purvaH), later (परः / paraH) etc., to compare.
27. Kalidasa is better than Bhabhuti.कालिदासः भवभूतेः श्रेष्ठः
kaalidaasaH bhavabhuuteH shreShThaH
28. Lakshamana is elder to Satrughna.लक्ष्मणः शत्रुघ्नात् पूर्वः
lakshamaNaH shatrughnaat puurvaH
29. Bhima is younger to Yudhisthira.भीमः युधिष्ठीरात् परः
bhiimaH yudhiShThiiraat paraH

Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the origin or source of something will be in ablative case.

In Sentence 6 - the waterfall flows from the mountain. In other words the mountain is the source of the waterfall. So, the word "mountain" is in ablative case. Sentence 7 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the source of fear will be in ablative case.

In sentence 9 - deer fears the tiger. In other words tiger is the source of fear. So, the word "tiger" is in ablative case. Sentence 10 and 11 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing something or someone from which something or someone is protected will be in ablative case.

In sentence 12 - police protects from thief. That means thief is the thing from which the police protects. So, the word "thief" is in ablative case. Sentence 13 and 14 also follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the thing from which defeat is accepted, unable to tolerate or face it, with the use of preposition or उपसर्ग (upasarga) परा before the verb जयते (paraajayate) will be in ablative case. Note: If defeat is accepted after facing it bravely, then the word will be in accusative case.

In sentence 15 - word पराजयते (paraajayate) is used to express "his defeat from study". In other words it also means - "he is not able to study" or "he is afraid of studies". So, the word "study" is in ablative case. Sentence 16 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing something from which someone or something is opposed or restrained will be in ablative case.

In sentence 17 - the cows are being restrained from paddy. So, the word "paddy" is in ablative case. Sentence 18 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing someone or something from which one is hiding from will be in ablative case.

In sentence 19 - Krishna is hiding from mother. So, the word "mother" is in ablative case. Sentence 20 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the cause of something will be in ablative case. Note: If the subject is in feminine gender, then it can also be in instrumental case.

In sentence 21 - lazyness or आलस्य (aalasya) is the reason of Gauri not reading. In other words lazyness is the reason of "not reading". So, it is in ablative case.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing the source of creation will be in ablative case.

In sentence 22 - fruit is created from flower or in other words "flower is the source of creation" of fruit. So, the word "flower" is in ablative case. Sentence 23 also follows this rule.


Grammatical Rule
The word expressing something to which hate or dislike is expressed will be in ablative case.

Sentence 24 and 25 follow this rule.


Grammatical Rule
When superlative or comparative adjectives such like श्रेष्ठः (shreShThaH), पुर्वः (purvaH), परः (paraH) etc., are used the word expressing the thing to which the comparision is being made will be in ablative case.

In sentence 26 - mango is better than guava. So, guava is the thing from which mango is better. Hence the word "guava" is in ablative case. Similarly in sentence 28 - word "earlier" or पुर्वः (purvaH) is used to mean that Lakshamana is earlier to Satrughna. So, the word "Satrughna" is in ablative case. Sentence 27 and 29 also follow this rule.



Ablative Case (पञ्चमी विभक्ति / paJNchamii vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M - पुंबालात्
baalaat
बालाभ्याम्
baalaabhyaam
बालेभ्यः
baalebhyaH
-
Creeper
लता / lataa
F - स्त्रीलतायाः
lataayaaH
लताभ्याम्
lataabhyaam
लताभ्यः
lataabhyaH
-
River
नदी / nadii
F - स्त्रीनद्याः
nadyaaH
नदीभ्याम्
nadiinaam
नदीभ्यः
nadiibhyaH
-
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N - नपुंफलात्
phalaat
फलाभ्याम्
phalaabhyaam
फलेभ्यः
phalebhyaH
-


<<  :::  Index  :::  >>
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work by SAMSKRUTAM is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You can copy, distribute, transmit, adapt, and make use of the work (including commercial); with attribution of this work to SAMSKRUTAM.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. SAMSKRUTAM™ is a trademark of the Sanskrit & Indology Foundation, a non-profit organisation.

Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | About - Sanskrit & Indology Foundation | About - SAMSKRUTAM
an open content project by
Sanskrit & Indology Foundation.
PoweredBy
SAMSKRUTAM.COM website hosted since 2005.
sanskrit@samskrutam.com | info@samskrutam.com