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SAMSKRUTAM

Shloka ::: Upanishad

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Upanishad (उपनिषद् - upaniShad) Or ज्ञानकाण्ड (dnyaanakaaNDa), literally meaning the "knowledge portion", are the concluding chapters of the Veda-s, which teach the philosophical essence of the entire Veda-s. If one understands these, there is nothing else to be understood in the Veda-s. The contents in Upanishad-s (उपनिषद् - upaniShad) are presented as spiritual discourses; where the disciple wishes to understand the true meaning and goal of life; the perceptor who has already achieved the goal explains the same.

The teachings of entire vedic-text is highly scientific, logical and practical. In essence it can be said that - these are the manuals for proper upkeeping of the most complex creation of the Universe, the human being. These are for the benifit of entire mankind and not specific to any cast, creed, religion or counry.

In vedantic philosophy human being or जिव (jiva) consists of body, mind and intellect; and there are three corresponding personalities viz., physical, mental and intellectual. However, the human being is lifeless matter, without the divine-spark-of-life or आत्मन् (aatman) inside; also known as the soul, it corresponds to the fourth personality, the spiritual personality. Man perceves, feels and understands the world through the finite instruments of body, mind, and intellect. Beyond this finite world lies the inifinite truth, the supreme-soul or ब्रह्मन् (brahman). This is the all-pervading suprem-soul or God, present in the entire Universe, enabling the Universe to function the way it does. Everything including the Universe is part of it. It is the change-less, form-less, attribute-less unmanifest substratum over which the ever changing world manifests. The essential spiritual goal is to attain absolute peace and tranquility by serving the mankind, and identifying self with the supreme-soul or ब्रह्मन् (brahman). One needs to live a life of good conduct and follow the suggested practical paths to transcend the four personalities and get united with the supreme-truth or supreme-soul (ब्रह्मन् / brahman). The word ब्रह्मन् (brahman) should not be confused with two similar words - ब्रह्मा (brahmaa) and ब्रह्मण (brahmaNa). The creative aspect of ब्रह्मन् (brahman) is ब्रह्मा (brahmaa). One who has understood, achieved and lives in the realm of ब्रह्मन् (brahman) is a ब्रह्मण (brahmaNa).

Here are few mantras with their indicative meaning, collected from different Upanishad-s.


वेदमनूच्याचार्योऽन्तेवासिनमनुशास्ति
सत्यं वद, धर्मं चर, स्वाध्यायान्मा प्रसदः
आचार्याय प्रियं धनमाहृत्य प्रजतन्तुं मा व्यवच्छेत्सीः
सत्यान्न प्रमदितव्यम्, धर्मान्न प्रमदितव्यम्
कुशलान्न प्रमादितव्यम्, भूत्यै न प्रमादितव्यम्
स्वाध्यायप्रवचनाभ्यां न प्रमदितव्यम् ॥ १ ॥
देवापितृकार्याभ्यां न प्रमदितव्यम्
मातृदेवो भव, पितृदेवो भव
आचार्यदेवो भव, अतिथिदेवो भव ॥ २ ॥
यान्यनवद्यानि कर्माणि, तानि सेवितव्यानि
नो इतराणि, यान्यस्माकगं सुचरितानि
तानि त्वयोपास्यानि, नो इतराणि ॥ ३ ॥
ये के चास्मच्छ्रेयाणो ब्राह्मणाः
तेषां त्वयाऽऽसनेन प्रश्वसितव्यम् ॥ ४ ॥
श्रद्धया देयम्, अश्रद्धयादेयम्
श्रिया देयम्, ह्रिया देयम्
भिया देयम्, संविदा देयम् ॥ ५ ॥
अथ यदि ते कर्मविचिकित्सा वा वृत्तविचिकित्सा वा स्यात्
ये तत्र ब्राह्मणाः सम्मर्शिनः, युक्ताः आयुक्ताः
अलूक्षा धर्मकामाः स्युः, यथा ते तत्र वर्तेरन्
तथा तत्र वर्तेथाः ॥ ६ ॥
अथाभ्याख्व्यातेषु, ये तत्र ब्रह्मणाः सम्मर्शिनः
युक्ताः आयुक्ताः, अलूक्षा धर्मकामाः स्युः
यथा ते तेषु वर्तेरन्, तथा तेषु वर्थेथाः ॥ ७ ॥
एष आदेशः, एष उपदेशः, एषा वेदोपनिषत्
एतदनुशासनम्, एवमुपासितव्यम्
एवसु चैतदुपास्यम् ॥ ८ ॥

vedamanuuchyaachaaryo.antevaasinamanushaasti
satya.n vada, dharma.n chara, svaadhyaayaanmaa prasadaH
aachaaryaaya priya.n dhanamaahRRitya prajatantu.n maa vyavachchhetsiiH
satyaanna pramaditavyam, dharmaanna pramaditavyam
kushalaanna pramaaditavyam, bhuutyai na pramaaditavyam
svaadhyaayapravachanaabhyaa.n na pramaditavyam (1)
devaapitRRikaaryaabhyaa.n na pramaditavyam
maatRRidevo bhava, pitRRidevo bhava
aachaaryadevo bhava, atithidevo bhava (2)
yaanyanavadyaani karmaaNi, taani sevitavyaani
no itaraaNi, yaanyasmaakag.n sucharitaani
taani tvayopaasyaani, no itaraaNi (3)
ye ke chaasmachchhreyaaN^so braahmaNaaH
teShaa.n tvayaa.a.asanena prashvasitavyam (4).
shraddhayaa deyam, ashraddhayaadeyam
shriyaa deyam, hriyaa deyam
bhiyaa deyam, sa.nvidaa deyam (5)
atha yadi te karmavichikitsaa vaa vRRittavichikitsaa vaa syaat
ye tatra braahmaNaaH sammarshinaH, yuktaaH aayuktaaH
aluukshaa dharmakaamaaH syuH, yathaa te tatra varteran
tathaa tatra vartethaaH (6)
athaabhyaakhvyaateShu, ye tatra brahmaNaaH sammarshinaH
yuktaaH aayuktaaH, aluukshaa dharmakaamaaH syuH
yathaa te teShu varteran, tathaa teShu varthethaaH (7)
eSha aadeshaH, eSha upadeshaH, eShaa vedopaniShat
etadanushaasanam, evamupaasitavyam
evasu chaitadupaasyam (8)

Always speak the truth, do your duty, never swerve from the study of the Veda-s, do not discontinue your family's line of descendants, after giving the perceptor the fee he desires; never deviate from truth, never fail to perform your duty, never overlook your own welfare, never neglect your prosperity, never neglect the study and the propagation of the Veda-s (1). Never swerve from your duties towards Gods and towards the departed souls; may your mother be a God to you, may your father be a God to you, may your perceptor be a God to you, may your guest be a God to you (2). Let only those actions be done which are free from blemishes, and not others; may you follow only those virtuous which are blameless, and not others (3). May you offer seat to superiors and worship them with acts of respect and love (4). Gifts should be given with faith and never without faith; it should be given in plenty, with modesty and sympathy; while offering gifts, let there be feelings of affection (5). In case of any doubt regarding your acts or conduct in life, you should act exactly as those brahmana-s who are thoughtful, experienced, not influenced by others, not cruel, and are devoted to righteousness (6). With regard to those who are falsely accused of some crime, you should rule yourself exactly as those brahmana-s who are thoughtful, experienced, not influenced by others, not cruel, and are devoted to righteousness (7). This is the command, the teaching, the secret of the Veda-s, the commandment; and this should be observed. Having understood this fully, one must act accordingly, till the last (8). [ This is the essence of Veda-s that the perceptor enjoins the disciples. (तैत्तरीय उपनिषद् - taittariiya upaniShad, यजुर्वेद - yajurveda) ]

....... ॐ .......

विविक्तदेशे च सुखासनस्थः
शुचिः समग्रीवशिरःशरीरः
अत्याश्रमस्थः सकलेन्द्रियाणि
निरूश्य भक्त्या स्वगुरुं प्रणम्य
हृत्पुण्दरीकं विरजं विशुद्धं
विचिन्त्य मध्ये विशदं विशोकम्
अचिन्त्यमव्यक्तमनन्तरूपं
शिवं प्रशान्तममृतं ब्रह्मयोहिम्
तथाऽऽदिमध्यान्तविहीनमेकं
विभुं चिदानन्दमरूपमद्भुतम् ॥ १ ॥
स ब्रह्मा स शिवः सोऽक्षरः परमः स्वराट्
स एव विष्णुः स प्राणः स कालोऽग्निः स चन्द्रमाः
स एव सर्वं यद् भूतं यच्च भव्यं सनातनम्
ज्ञात्वा तं मृत्युमत्योति नान्यः पन्था विमुक्तये ॥ २ ॥
सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मानि
सम्पश्यन् ब्रह्मा परमं नान्येन हेतुना ॥ ३ ॥

viviktadeshe cha sukhaasanasthaH
shuchiH samagriivashiraHshariiraH
atyaashramasthaH sakalendriyaaNi
niruushya bhaktyaa svaguru.n praNamya
hRRitpuNdariika.n viraja.n vishuddha.n
vichintya madhye vishada.n vishokam
achintyamavyaktamanantaruupa.n
shiva.n prashaantamamRRita.n brahmayohim
tathaa.a.adimadhyaantavihiinameka.n
vibhu.n chidaanandamaruupamadbhutam (1)
sa brahmaa sa shivaH so.aksharaH paramaH svaraaT
sa eva viShNuH sa praaNaH sa kaalo.agniH sa chandramaaH
sa eva sarva.n yad bhuuta.n yachcha bhavya.n sanaatanam
dnyaatvaa ta.n mRRityumatyoti naanyaH panthaa vimuktaye (2)
sarvabhuutasthamaatmaana.n sarvabhuutaani chaatmaani
sampashyan brahmaa parama.n naanyena hetunaa (3)

In an undisturbed, clean and pure place, seating in a comfortable posture, with neck, head and body held errect in one line, with a mental attitude of renounciation; having controlled all the senses, saluting ones own perceptor mentally with reverence, meditate within the lotus of the heart, on the untainted, the pure, the clear and griefless, the unthinkable, the unmanifest, the one of endless-forms, the ever-auspicious, the peaceful, the immortal, the source of the very creator, the one without begining, middle or end, the only-one, the all-pervading, the knowledge-of-bliss, the formless, and the wonderful (1). He is Brahmaa, He is Shiva, He is Indra, He is the immutable, the supreme, the self-luminous; He alone is Vishnu, He is life, He is time and fire and He is the moon; He alone is all that-was, and all that-will-be, the eternal; knowing Him, one goes beyond the sting of death; there is no other way to reach absolute freedom (2). By experiencing one's own Self in all beings and all beings in the Self; one attains the highest Brahman, and not by any other means (3). [ The process of meditation and the goal of same is explained in this stanza. (कैवल्य उपनिषद् - kaivalya upaniShad, अथर्ववेद - atharvaveda) ]

....... ॐ .......

ॐ सर्वं ईशावास्यमिदङ् यत् किञ्च जगत्यां जगत्
तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथा मा गृधः कस्य स्विद् धनम् ॥

OM iishaavaasyamidaN^ sarva.n yat kiJNcha jagatyaa.n jagat
tena tyaktena bhuJNjiithaa maa gRRidhaH kasya svid dhanam

All this, whatsoever moves in this Universe, including the Universe, itself moving, is pervaded (clothed) by the Lord. Renouncing that, you should enjoy but not crave anybody's wealth. (ईशावास्य उपनिषद् - iishaavaasya upaniShad, यजुर्वेद - yajurveda)

....... ॐ .......

कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छत्ग्ण् समाः
एवं त्वयि नान्यथेतोऽस्ति न कर्म लिप्यते नरे ॥

kurvanneveha karmaaNi jijiiviShechchhatgN^ samaaH
eva.n tvayi naanyatheto.asti na karma lipyate nare

Performing verily one's duty in this world should one desire to live a full hundred years. This alone is right, and there exists no other right path; action never binds a man following this path. (ईशावास्य उपनिषद् - iishaavaasya upaniShad, यजुर्वेद - yajurveda)

....... ॐ .......

यस्तु सर्वाणि भूतानि आत्मन्येवानुपश्यति
सर्वभूतेषु चात्मानं ततो न विजुगुप्सते ॥

yastu sarvaaNi bhuutaani aatmanyevaanupashyati
sarvabhuuteShu chaatmaana.n tato na vijugupsate

He who sees everyone and everything in self; and the self in all beings and forms; feels no hatred for anything. (ईशावास्य उपनिषद् - iishaavaasya upaniShad, यजुर्वेद - yajurveda)

....... ॐ .......

अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽविद्यामुपासते
ततो भूय इव ते तमो य उ विद्यायाण् रताः ॥

andha.n tamaH pravishanti ye.avidyaamupaasate
tato bhuuya iva te tamo ya u vidyaayaaN^ rataaH

They who follow rites (or rituals) alone enter into blinding darkness, and they, who are engaged in meditation (or knowledge) only verily fall, into an even greater darkness. [ In essence it means - performing rituals without understanding the true knowledge underneath; and engaging only in knowledge without performing the necessary action is ignorance. The right relationship between the rituals and knowledge is to be understood. (ईशावास्य उपनिषद् - iishaavaasya upaniShad, यजुर्वेद - yajurveda) ]

....... ॐ .......

केनोषितं पतति प्रेषितं मनः केन प्राणः प्रथम प्रौति युक्तः
केनोषितां वाचमिमां वदन्ति चक्षुः श्रोत्रं क उ देवो युनक्ति ॥ १ ॥
श्रोत्रस्य श्रोत्रं मनसो मनो यद् वाचो ह वाचं स उ प्राणस्य प्राणः
चक्षुषश्चक्षुरतिमुच्य धीराः प्रेत्यास्माल्लोकादमृता भवन्ति ॥ २ ॥
न तत्र चक्षुर् गच्छति न वाग् गच्छति नो मनः
न विज्ञो न विजानीमो यथैतदनुशिष्यात्
अन्यदेव तद् विदितादथो अविदितादधि
इति शुश्रुम पूर्वेषां ये नस्तद् व्याचचक्षिरे ॥ ३ ॥
यद् वाचाऽनभ्युदितं येन वागभ्युद्यते
तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥ ४ ॥
यन्मनसा न मनुते येनाऽऽहुर् मनो मतम्
तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥ ५ ॥
यच्चक्षुषा न पश्यति येन चक्षूण्हि पश्यति
तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥ ६ ॥
यच्छ्रोत्रेण न शृणोति येन श्रोत्रमिदं श्तुतम्
तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥ ७ ॥
यत् प्राणेन न प्राणिति येन प्राणः प्रणीयते
तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥ ८ ॥

kenoShita.n patati preShita.n manaH kena praaNaH prathama prauti yuktaH
kenoShitaa.n vaachamimaa.n vadanti chakshuH shrotra.n ka u devo yunakti (1)
shrotrasya shrotra.n manaso mano yad vaacho ha vaacha.n sa u praaNasya praaNaH
chakshuShashchakshuratimuchya dhiiraaH pretyaasmaallokaadamRRitaa bhavanti (2)
na tatra chakshur gachchhati na vaag gachchhati no manaH
na vidnyo na vijaaniimo yathaitadanushiShyaat
anyadeva tad viditaadatho aviditaadadhi
iti shushruma puurveShaa.n ye nastad vyaachachakshire (3)
yad vaachaa.anabhyudita.n yena vaagabhyudyate
tadeva brahma tva.n viddhi neda.n yadidamupaasate (4)
yanmanasaa na manute yenaa.a.ahur mano matam
tadeva brahma tva.n viddhi neda.n yadidamupaasate (5)
yachchakshuShaa na pashyati yena chakshuuN^Shi pashyati
tadeva brahma tva.n viddhi neda.n yadidamupaasate (6)
yachchhrotreNa na shRRiNoti yena shrotramida.n shtutam
tadeva brahma tva.n viddhi neda.n yadidamupaasate (7)
yat praaNena na praaNiti yena praaNaH praNiiyate
tadeva brahma tva.n viddhi neda.n yadidamupaasate (8)

Question: By whom willed and directed does the mind light upon its objects; commanded by whom does the vital-air (breathing air) functions; by whose will do men utter speach; what directs the eyes and ears (to see and hear) (1)? Explanation: It is the ear of the ear, mind of the mind, speech (speaking power) of the speech, the life of the life, and the eye of the eye. The wise becomes immortal, by renouncing the sense of 'I'-ness in these and rising above sense-life (2). Neither the eye goes there, nor speech, nor mind. Neither we know that, nor we know how to teach one about it (3). What speech can not reveal, but what reveals speech; know that alone as brahman and not this, which people do worship here (4). What one cannot feel with the mind, but because of which mind feels; know that alone as brahman and not this, which people do worship here (5). What cannot be seen by the eye, but by which the eyes are able to see; know that alone as brahman and not this, which people do worship here (6). What cannot be heard by the ear, but by which the ears are able to hear; know that as brahman and not this which people here do worship (7). That which one breathes not with his breath, but by which breath is breathed; know that to be brahman and not this, which people do worship here (8). [ The indicative meaning of the divine-spark-of-life inside us is explained in this stanza. (केनोपनिषद् - kenopaniShad, सामवेद - saamaveda) ]

....... ॐ .......

ॐ आत्मा वा इद्मेक एवाग्र आसीत्
नान्यत् किंचन मिषत् ॥ १ ॥
स ईक्षत लोकान्नु सृजा इति ॥ २ ॥
स इमांल्लोकानसृजत
अम्भो मरीचीर्मरमापोऽदोऽम्भः परेण दिवं
द्योः प्रतिष्ठान्तरिक्षं मरीचयः
पृथिवी मरो या अधस्तात्ता आपः ॥ ३ ॥
स ईक्षतेमे नु लोका लोकपालान्नु सृजा इति
सोऽद्भय एव पुरुषं समुद्धृत्यामूर्चयत् ॥ ४ ॥
तमभ्यतपत्तस्याभितप्त मुखंनिरभिद्यत
यथाण्डं मुखाद् वाग् वाचोऽग्निः
नासिके निरभद्योतां नासिकाभ्यां प्राणः प्राणाद्वायुः
अक्षिणी निरभिद्येतामक्षिभ्यां चक्षुश्चक्षुष आदित्यः
कर्णौ निरभिद्येतां कर्णाभ्यां श्रोत्रं श्रोत्राद्दिशः
त्वण् निरभिद्यत त्वचो
लोमानि लोमभ्य ओषधिवनस्पतयो
हृदयं निरभिद्यत हृदयान्मनो मनसश्चन्द्रमाः
नाभिर्निरभिद्यत नाभ्या अपानोऽपानान्मृत्युः
शिश्नं निरभिद्यत शिश्नाद्रेतो रेतस आपः ॥ ५ ॥

OM aatmaa vaa idmeka evaagra aasiit
naanyat ki.nchana miShat (1)
sa iikshata lokaannu sRRijaa iti (2)
sa imaa.nllokaanasRRijata
ambho mariichiirmaramaapo.ado.ambhaH pareNa diva.n
dyoH pratiShThaantariksha.n mariichayaH
pRRithivii maro yaa adhastaattaa aapaH (3)
sa iikshateme nu lokaa lokapaalaannu sRRijaa iti
so.adbhaya eva puruSha.n samuddhRRityaamuurchayat (4)
tamabhyatapattasyaabhitapta mukha.nnirabhidyata
yathaaNDa.n mukhaad vaag vaacho.agniH
naasike nirabhadyotaa.n naasikaabhyaa.n praaNaH praaNaadvaayuH
akshiNii nirabhidyetaamakshibhyaa.n chakshushchakshuSha aadityaH
karNau nirabhidyetaa.n karNaabhyaa.n shrotra.n shrotraaddishaH
tvaN^ nirabhidyata tvacho
lomaani lomabhya oShadhivanaspatayo
hRRidaya.n nirabhidyata hRRidayaanmano manasashchandramaaH
naabhirnirabhidyata naabhyaa apaano.apaanaanmRRityuH
shishna.n nirabhidyata shishnaadreto retasa aapaH (5)

In the begining, verily, supreme-self alone was this (Universe), nothing else whatsoever (1). He thought 'I shall indeed create the worlds' (2). He created all these worlds - ether, atmosphere, earth and water. The realm of light or atmosphere is located between the ether and heaven and the heaven above earth; underneath the earth is the realm of water and minerals (3). He reflected 'Here are the worlds. Let me create the world-protectors'. Then he raised the gross-form-of-creation from the waters and shaped it (4). While contemplating thus, brust forth on the gross-form the shape of a mouth, as an egg does; from the mouth came speech and from speech fire; then came forth the nostrils, from the nostrils the smell, and from the power-of-smell the air; then came eyes, from the eyes emerged sight, and from sight the sun; then came ears, from the ears hearing, from hearing, the direction; then came the skin, from the skin proceeded hairs, and from the hairs, the 'herbs and trees'; then came the heart, from the heart proceeded the mind, and from mind, the moon; then came the naval brust, from the naval, the organ-of-digestion, and from organ-of-digestion, the death; then came the generative-organ, from this the seed, and from seeds the water (5). [ The process of creation, the dependence of the created organs and respective faculties on the natural elements, like air, water, herbs etc., is explained here. (ऐतरेय उपनिषद् - aitareya upaniShad, ऋग्वेद - RRigveda) ]

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