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Grammar Tutorial ::: Imperative Mood / आझयांलोट्लकार / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara

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आझयांलोट्लकार / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara (Imperative Mood - Commands & Requests): In previous three chapters we studied about tenses. In this chapter we will study about verb-forms used in imerative mood. These verb-forms are used while giving commands or requests. आझयांलोट्लकार (aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara) verb-forms represent these.

The complete आझयांलोट्लकार / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara of पठ् / paTh (read) and गम् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in imperative mood.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Imperative Mood - Third Person Singular
आझयांलोट्लकार प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara prathamapuruSha ekavachana
1. Let the boy read. बालकः पठतु
baalakaH paThatu
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
2. Let the girl read. बालिका पठतु
baalikaa paThatu
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
3. Let Rama read. रामः पठतु
raamaH paThatu
राम
raama
पठ्
paTh
-
4. Let Sita read. सीता पठतु
siitaa paThatu
सीता
siitaa
पठ्
paTh
-
5. Let the boy go. बालकः गच्छतु
baalakaH gachchhatu
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
6. Let the girl go. बालिका गच्छतु
baalikaa gachchhatu
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
Imperative Mood - Third Person Plural
आझयांलोट्लकार प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara prathamapuruSha bahuvachana)
7. Let the boys read. बालकाः पठन्तु
baalakaaH paThantu
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
8. Let the girls read. बालिकाः पठन्तु
baalikaaH paThantu
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
9. Let the students read. च्छात्राः पठन्तु
chchhaatraaH paThantu
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
10. Let the clearks read. लिपिकाराः पठन्तु
lipikaaraaH paThantu
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
11. Let the boys go. बालकाः गच्छन्तु
baalakaaH gachchhantu
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
12. Let the girls go. बालिकाः गच्छन्तु
baalikaaH gachchhantu
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always follows the number and peson, the verb (पठति / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural (प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb (पठन्ति / paThanti) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् (paTh).

All the above sentences were in third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha). Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha).

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Imperative Mood - Second Person Singular
आझयांलोट्लकार मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara madhyamapuruSha ekavachana
13. You go. त्वं गच्छ
tva.n gachchha
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
14. You read. त्वं पठ
tva.n paTha
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Imperative Mood - First Person Singular
आझयांलोट्लकार उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara uttamapuruSha ekavachana
15. Let me go. अहं गच्चानि
aha.n gachchhaani
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
16. Let me read. अहं पठानि
aha.n paThaani
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Imperative Mood - Second Person Plural
आझयांलोट्लकार मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana)
17. You all go. युयं गच्छत
yua.n gachchhata
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
18. You all read. युयं पठत
yua.n paThata
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Imperative Mood - First Person Plural
आझयांलोट्लकार उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara uttamapuruSha bahuvachana)
19. Let us all go. वयं गच्छाम
vaya.n gachchhaama
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
20. Let us all read. वयं पठाम
vaya.n paThaama
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural (मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person plural (उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all these sentences the Subjects used is अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of first person the kartaa is always अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda).

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Imperative Mood Dual ( आझयांलोट्लकार द्विवचन / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara dvivachana)
21. Let the two boys read. बालकौ पठताम्
baalakau paThataam
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
22. Let the two girls read. बालिके पठताम्
baalike paThataam
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
23. Let the two boys go. बालकौ गच्छताम्
baalakau gachchhataam
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
24. Let the two girls go. बालिके गच्छताम्
baalike gachchhataam
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
25. Let the two students read. च्छात्रौ पठताम्
chchhatrau paThataam
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
26. Let the two clearks read. लिपिकारौ पठताम्
lipikaarau paThataam
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
27. Both of you go. युवां गच्छतम्
yuvaa.n gachchhatam
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
28. Both of you read. युवां पठतम्
yuvaa.n paThatam
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
29. Let both of us go. आवां गच्छाव
aavaa.n gachchhaava
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
30. Let both of us read. आवां पठाव
aavaa.n paThaava
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using लृट्लकार / lRRiTlakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those.

In the next chapter we will study विधैलिङ्लकार (vidhailiN^lakaara) or optative mood.



Read / पठ् / paTh : आझयांलोट्लकार / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara
(Imperative Mood - Commands & Requests)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
पठतु / paThatu पठताम् / paThataam पठन्तु / paThantu
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
पठ / paTha पठतम् / paThatam पठत / paThata
First
उत्तम / uttama
पठानि / paThaani पठाव / paThaava पठाम / paThaama


Go / गम् / gam : आझयांलोट्लकार / aajhaayaa.nloTlakaara
(Imperative Mood - Commands & Requests)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
गच्छतु / gachchhatu गच्छताम् / gachchhataam गच्छन्तु / gachchhantu
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
गच्छ / gachchha गच्छतम् / gachchhatam गच्छत / gachchhata
First
उत्तम / uttama
गच्चानि / gachchhaani गच्छाव / gachchhaava गच्छाम / gachchhaama


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