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Grammar Tutorial ::: Optative Mood / विधैलिङ्लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara

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विधैलिङ्लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara (Optative Mood - Should or May): In previous chapter we studied about imperative mood. In this chapter we will study about optative mood. विधैलिङ्लकार (vidhailiN^lakaara) verb-forms represent sentences in optative mood. So, any sentence indicating possibility of something verb-forms of विधैलिङ्लकार (vidhailiN^lakaara) should be used.

The complete विधैलिङ्लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara of पठ् / paTh (read) and गम् / gam (go) धातु / dhaatu are given at the end of this chapter for reference. Study the following sentences. These are in विधैलिङ्लकार (vidhailiN^lakaara) or optative mood.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Optative Mood - Third Person Singular
विधैलिङ्लकार प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara prathamapuruSha ekavachana
1. The boy should read. बालकः पठेत्
baalakaH paThet
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
2. The girl should read. बालिका पठेत्
baalikaa paThet
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
3. Rama should read. रामः पठेत्
raamaH paThet
राम
raama
पठ्
paTh
-
4. Sita should read. सीता पठेत्
siitaa paThet
सीता
siitaa
पठ्
paTh
-
5. The boy should go. बालकः गच्छेत्
baalakaH gachchhet
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
6. The girl should go. बालिका गच्छेत्
baalikaa gachchhet
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
Optative Mood - Third Person Plural
विधैलिङ्लकार प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara prathamapuruSha bahuvachana)
7. The boys should read. बालकाः पठेयुः
baalakaaH paTheyaH
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
8. The girls should read. बालिकाः पठेयुः
baalikaaH paTheyaH
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
9. Students should read. च्छात्राः पठेयुः
chchhaatraaH paTheyaH
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
10. Clearks should read. लिपिकाराः पठेयुः
lipikaaraaH paTheyaH
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
11. The boys should go. बालकाः गच्छेयुः
baalakaaH gachchheyuH
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
12. The girls should go. बालिकाः गच्छेयुः
baalikaaH gachchheyuH
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-

In setences 1 to 6, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana). As the verb always follows the number and peson, the verb (पठति / paThati) is also in 3rd person singular (प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन / prathamapuruSha ekavachana).

In case of setences 7 to 12, the Subject (कर्ता / kartaa) is in 3rd person plural (प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana). Similarly the verb (पठन्ति / paThanti) is also in प्रथमपुरुष बहुवचन / prathamapuruSha bahuvachana of verb पठ् (paTh).

All the above sentences were in third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha). Now let us study the following sentences. These are in second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha).

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Optative Mood - Second Person Singular
विधैलिङ्लकार मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara madhyamapuruSha ekavachana
13. You should go. त्वं गच्छेः
tva.n gachchheH
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
14. You should read. त्वं पठेः
tva.n paTheH
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Optative Mood - First Person Singular
विधैलिङ्लकार उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara uttamapuruSha ekavachana
15. I should go. अहं गच्छेयम्
aha.n gachchheyam
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
16. I should read. अहं पठेयम्
aha.n paTheyam
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Optative Mood - Second Person Plural
विधैलिङ्लकार मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana)
17. You all should go. युयं गच्छेत
yua.n पठेयम्
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
18. You all should read. युयं पठेत
yua.n paTheta
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
Optative Mood - First Person Plural
विधैलिङ्लकार उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara uttamapuruSha bahuvachana)
19. We all should go. वयं गच्छेम
vaya.n gachchhema
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
20. We all should read. वयं पठेम
vaya.n paThema
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

In sentences 13 and 14 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person singular (मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन / madhyamapuruSha ekavachana) and in case of 17 and 18 the Subject (kartaa) is in second person plural (मध्यमपुरुष बहुवचन / madhyamapuruSha bahuvachana). We can see that in all these sentences the Subject used is युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of second person the kartaa is always युस्मद् (yusmad) शब्द (shabda).

In sentences 15 and 16 the Subject is in first person singular (उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन / uttamapuruSha ekavachana). In case of 19 and 20 the Subject is in first person plural (उत्तमपुरुष बहुवचन / uttamapuruSha bahuvachana). In all these sentences the Subjects used is अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda). In case of first person the kartaa is always अस्मद् (asmad) शब्द (shabda).

The followings are the dual number form of above sentences.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
शब्द / shabda
Verb
धातु / dhaatu
Comments
Optative Mood Dual ( विधैलिङ्लकार द्विवचन / vidhailiN^lakaara dvivachana)
21. Two boys should read. बालकौ पठेताम्
baalakau paThetaam
बालक
baalaka
पठ्
paTh
-
22. Two girls should read. बालिके पठेताम्
baalike paThetaam
बालिका
baalikaa
पठ्
paTh
-
23. Two boys should go. बालकौ गच्छेताम्
baalakau gachchhetaam
बालक
baalaka
गम्
gam
-
24. Two girls should go. बालिके गच्छेताम्
baalike gachchhetaam
बालिका
baalikaa
गम्
gam
-
25. Two students should read. च्छात्रौ पठेताम्
chchhatrau paThetaam
च्छात्र
chchhaatra
पठ्
paTh
-
26. Two clearks should read. लिपिकारौ पठेताम्
lipikaarau paThetaam
लिपिकार
lipikaara
पठ्
paTh
-
27. Both of you should go. युवां गच्छेतम्
yuvaa.n gachchhatam
युस्मद्
yusmad
गम्
gam
-
28. Both of you should read. युवां पठेतम्
yuvaa.n paThetam
युस्मद्
yusmad
पठ्
paTh
-
29. Both of us should go. आवां गच्छेव
aavaa.n gachchheva
अस्मद्
asmad
गम्
gam
-
30. Both of us should read. आवां पठेव
aavaa.n paTheva
अस्मद्
asmad
पठ्
paTh
-

At the end of this chapter in Verb Forms - Practice Sentences 1 a collection of many Sanskrit sentences using विधैलिङ्लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara are given. You will know about many more nouns (शब्द / shabda) and verbs (धातु / dhaatu) in those.



Read / पठ् / paTh : विधैलिङ्लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara
(Optative Mood - Should or May)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
पठेत् / paThet पठेताम् / paThetaam पठेयुः / paTheyaH
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
पठेः / paTheH पठेतम् / paThetam पठेत / paTheta
First
उत्तम / uttama
पठेयम् / paTheyam पठेव / paTheva पठेम / paThema


Go / गम् / gam : विधैलिङ्लकार / vidhailiN^lakaara
(Optative Mood - Should or May)
Person / पुरुष / puruSha Number / वचन / vachana
Singular
एकवचन / ekavachana
Dual
द्वीवचन / dviivachana
Plural
बहुवचन / bahuvachana
Third
प्रथम / prathama
गच्छेत् / gachchhet गच्छेताम् / gachchhetaam गच्छेयुः / gachchheyuH
Second
मध्यम / madhyama
गच्छेः / gachchheH गच्छेतम् / gachchhatam गच्छेत / gachchhet
First
उत्तम / uttama
गच्छेयम् / gachchheyam गच्छेव / gachchheva गच्छेम / gachchhema


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