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Grammar Tutorial ::: Past Tense / क्तवतु प्रत्यय / ktavatu pratyaya

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क्तवतु प्रत्यय / ktavatu pratyaya (Past Tense): In this chapter we will study the क्तवतु प्रत्यय (ktavatu pratyaya). The verb-form with this suffix is used in active voice (कर्तृवाच्य / kartRRivaachya) sentences to express past tense. This is a simpler alternative to लट्लकार (laTlakaara) verb-form.

Study the following sentences. These are using क्तवतु प्रत्यय (ktavatu pratyaya).

आङ्ग्लभाषा
English
संस्कृत
Sanskrit
Verb + ktavatu Suffix (gender, number)
धातु + क्तवतु (लिङ्ग, वचन)
dhaatu + ktavatu (liN^ga, vachana)
Comments
1. I went to temple.अहं देवालयं गतवान् ।
aha.n devaalaya.n gatavaan
गतवान् = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, एक)
gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka)
The sentences are in active voice with क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed words expressing past tense. The verb-forms are same irrespective of the person (पुरुष / puruSha).
2. You went to school.त्वं विद्यालयं गतवान् ।
tva.n vidyaalaya.n gatavaan
गतवान् = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, एक)
gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka)
3. He went to office.सः कार्यालयं गतवान् ।
saH kaaryaalaya.n gatavaan
गतवान् = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, एक)
gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka)
4. The boy went home.बालकः गृहं गतवान् ।
baalakaH gRRiha.n gatavaan
गतवान् = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, एक)
gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka)
5. Both of us went.आवां गतवन्तौ ।
aavaa.n gatavantau
गतवन्तौ = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, द्वी)
gatavantau = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, dvii)
6. Both of you went.युवां गतवन्तौ ।
yuvaa.n gatavantau
गतवन्तौ = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, द्वी)
gatavantau = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, dvii)
7. Both of them went.तौ गतवन्तौ ।
tau gatavantau
गतवन्तौ = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, द्वी)
gatavantau = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, dvii)
8. All of us went.वयं गतवन्तः ।
vaya.n gatavantaH
गतवन्तः = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, बहु)
gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahuu)
9. All of you went.यूयं गतवन्तः ।
yuuya.n gatavantaH
गतवन्तः = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, बहु)
gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahuu)
10. All of them went.ते गतवन्तः ।
te gatavantaH
गतवन्तः = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, बहु)
gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahu)
11. The girl went to temple.बालिका देवालयं गतवती ।
baalikaa devaalaya.n gatavatii
गतवती = गम् + क्तवतु (स्त्री, एक)
gatavatii = gam + ktavatu (strii, eka)
The subject in each sentence is in feminine gender (स्त्रीलिङ्ग / striiliN^ga). The verb-form has taken the form of the word "river" (नदी / nadii).
12. Both the girls went to school.बालिके विद्यालयं गतवत्यौ ।
baalike vidyaalaya.n gatavatyau
गतवत्यौ = गम् + क्तवतु (स्त्री, द्वी)
gatavatyau = gam + ktavatu (strii, dvii)
13. All the girls went home.बालिकाः गृहं गतवत्यः ।
baalikaaH gRRiha.n gatavatyaH
गतवत्यः = गम् + क्तवतु (स्त्री, बहु)
gatavatyaH = gam + ktavatu (strii, bahu)
14. The boy went to market.बालकः विपणिं गतवान् ।
baalakaH vipaNi.n gatavaan
गतवान् = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, एक)
gatavaan = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, eka)
The subject in each sentence is in masculine gender (पुलिङ्ग / puliN^ga). The verb-form has taken the form of the word "you" (भवत् / bhavat).
15. Both the boys went to school.बालकौ विद्यालयं गतवन्तौ ।
baalakau vidyaalaya.n gatavantau
गतवन्तौ = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, द्वी)
gatavantau = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, dvii)
16. All the boys went home.बालकाः गृहं गतवन्तः ।
baalakaaH gRRiha.n gatavantaH
गतवन्तः = गम् + क्तवतु (पुं, बहु)
gatavantaH = gam + ktavatu (pu.n, bahuu)
17. The vehicle went.यानम् गतवत् ।
yaanam gatavat
गतवत् = गम् + क्तवतु (न, एक)
gatavat = gam + ktavatu (na, eka)
The subject in each sentence is in neuter gender (नपुंलिङ्ग / napu.nliN^ga). The verb-form has taken the form of the word "sir" (श्रीमत् / shriimat).
18. Both the vehicles went.याने गतवती ।
yaane gatavatii
गतवती = गम् + क्तवतु (न, द्वी)
gatavatii = gam + ktavatu (na, dvii)
19. All the vehicles went.यानानि गतवन्ति ।
yaanaani gatavanti
गतवन्ति = गम् + क्तवतु (न, बहु)
gatavanti = gam + ktavatu (na, bahu)
20. The boy who has read.पठितवान् बालकः ।
paThitavaan baalakaH
पठितवान् = पठ् + क्तवतु
paThitavaan = paTh + ktavatu
The sentences are in active voice. The क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed words expressing past tense have been used as adjective (विशेषण / visheShaNa).
21. Of the person who is going.गतवतः जनस्य ।
gatavataH janasya
गतवतः = गम् + क्तवतु
gatavataH = gam + ktavatu
22. To the boy who has written.लिखितवन्तं बालकं ।
likhitavanta.n vaalaka.n
लिखितवन्तं = लिख् + क्तवतु
likhitavanta.n = likh + ktavatu
23. The girl who spoke.कथितवती बालिका ।
khathitavatii baalika
कथितवती = कथ् + क्तवतु
khathitavatii = khath + ktavatu
24. The leaves which have fallen from tree.वृक्षात् पतितवन्त्रि पत्राणि ।
vRRikshaat patitavanti patraaNi
पतितवन्त्रि = पत् + क्तवतु
patitavanti = pat + ktavatu
Grammatical Rule
In active voice (कर्तृवाच्य / kartRRivaachya) sentences the verb with क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffix is used to express action in past tense; and it follows the number (वचन / vachana) and gender (लिङ्ग / liN^ga) of the subject (कर्ता / kartaa).

Grammatical Rule
The क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed word does not follow the person (पुरुष / puruSha) of the subject, and has the same verb-form for first person (उत्तमपुरुष / uttamapuruSha), second person (मध्यमपुरुष / madhyamapuruSha) and third person (प्रथमपुरुष / prathamapuruSha).

The sentences 1, 2, 3 and 4 have "I" (अस्मद् / asmad), "you" (युष्मद् / yuShmad), "he" (तद् / tad) and "boy" (बाल / baala) as subjects in singular (एकवचन / ekavachana) form. The verb-form used for all is गतवान् (gatavaan). Similarly, sentences 5 to 7 subjects (कर्ता / kartaa) are in dual (द्वीवचन / dviivachana) form with गतवन्त्यौ (gatavantyau) as the क्तवतु (ktavatu) verb-form. The sentences 8 to 10 subjects (कर्ता / kartaa) are in plural (बहुवचन / bahuvachana) form with गतवन्तः (gatavantaH) as the क्तवतु (ktavatu) verb-form. In all the sentences the क्तवतु (ktavatu) verb-form is not affected by the persons or पुरुष (puruSha) of the subject (कर्ता / kartaa). This makes क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffix a simpler alternative to लट्लकार (laTlakaara) where each person or पुरुष (puruSha) follows a different verb-form.


Grammatical Rule
The क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed word follows the noun-form of "you" (भवत् / bhavat), "river" (नदी / nadii) and "sir" (श्रीमत् / shriimat) words to express masculine (पुलिङ्ग / puliN^ga), feminine (स्त्रीलिङ्ग / striiliN^ga) and neuter (नपुंलिङ्ग / napu.nliN^ga) genders respectively.

The sentences 1 to 19 are expressing action in past tense. In sentences 1 to 10 and 14 to 16 the subjects are in masculine gender (पुलिङ्ग / puliN^ga) and the corresponding क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed words are following the form of word "you" (भवत् / bhavat). The subjects in sentences 11 to 13 are in feminine gender (स्त्रीलिङ्ग / striiliN^ga), and the respective क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed words are following the form of word "river" (नदी / nadii). Similarly, in the sentences 17 to 19 the subjects are in neuter gender (नपुंलिङ्ग / napu.nliN^ga), and the क्तवतु (ktavatu) suffixed words are following the form of word "sir" (श्रीमत् / shriimat).

Followings are the क्तवतु प्रत्यय (ktavatu pratyaya) form of few commonly used verbs. Only the nominative case singular (प्रथमाविभक्ति एकवचन / prathamaavibhakti ekavachana) form is given following the noun-form of "you" (भवत् / bhavat), "river" (नदी / nadii) and "sir" (श्रीमत् / shriimat) words, for each gender.

Commonly Used क्तवतु प्रत्यय (ktavatu pratyaya) Forms
Verb
धातु
dhaatu
क्तवतु
ktavatu
Verb
धातु
dhaatu
क्तवतु
ktavatu
Verb
धातु
dhaatu
क्तवतु
ktavatu
eat
खाद्
khaad
खादितवान्, खादितवती, खादितवत्
khaaditavaan, khaaditavatii, khaaditavat
go
गम्
gam
गतवान्, गतवती, गतवत्
gatavaan, gatavatii, gatavat
sing
गै
gai
गीतवान्, गीतवती, गीतवत्
giitavaan, giitavatii, giitavat
take
नी
nii
नीतवान्, नीतवती, नीतवत्
niitavaan, niitavatii, niitavat
fall
पत्
pat
पतितवान्, पतितवती, पतितवत्
patitavaan, patitavatii, patitavat
worship
पूज्
puuj
पूजितवान्, पूजितवती, पूजितवत्
puujitavaan, puujitavatii, puujitavat
see
दृश्
dRRish
दृष्टवान्, दृष्टवती, दॄष्तवत्
dRRiShTavaan, dRRiShTavatii, dRRiShTavat
accept
ग्रह्
grah
गृहीतवान्, गृहीतवती, गृहीतवत्
gRRihiitavaan, gRRihiitavatii, gRRihiitavat
tell
कथ्
kath
कथितवान्, कथितवती, कथितवत्
kathitavaan, kathitavatii, kathitavat
know
ज्ञा
dnyaa
ज्ञातवान्, ज्ञातवती, ज्ञातवत्
dnyaatavaan, dnyaatavatii, dnyaatavat
do
कृ
kRRi
कृतवान्, कृतवती, कृतवत्
kRRitavaan, kRRitavatii, kRRitavat
ask
प्रच्छ्
prachchh
पृष्टवान्, पृष्टवती, पृष्टवत्
pRRiShTavaan, pRRiShTavatii, pRRiShTavat
fear
भी
bhii
भीतवान्, भीतवती, भीतवत्
bhiitavaan, bhiitavatii, bhiitavat
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