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Grammar Tutorial ::: अनुस्वार / anusvaara

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अनुस्वार (anusvaara) vs. म् (m): In this chapter we will study about the rules governing the use of म् (m) in place of अनुस्वार (anusvaara) symbol. In Sanskrit words ending with अनुस्वार (anusvaara) can also end with the letter म् (m). For example the accusative case of the word "boy" can be written as बालं (baala.n) as well as बालम् (baalam). These end with अनुस्वार (anusvaara) and म् (m) respectively. The substitution of अनुस्वार (anusvaara) with म् (m) is governed by certain rules.

Study the following sentences. These are using अनुस्वार (anusvaara) and म् (m) as appropriate.
आङ्ग्लभाषा / Englisसंस्कृत / SanskritNotes
1. He did the work.सः कार्यम् अकरोत् ।
saH kaaryam akarot
Words कार्यम् (kaaryam), पुस्तकम् (pustakam), विद्यालयम् (vidyaalayam), क्षीरम् (kshiiram) and उष्णम् (uShNam) are followed by vowels.
2. She read the book.सा पुस्तकम् अपठत् ।
saa pustakam apaThat
3. I went to school.अहं विद्यालयम् अगच्छम् ।
aha.n vidyaalayam agachchham
4. Milk is warm.क्षीरम् उष्णम् अस्ति ।
kshiiram uShNam asti
5. This is a book.एतत् पुस्तकम् ।
etat pustakam
Words पुस्तकम् (pustakam), नगरम् (nagaram), अपठम् (apaTham) and मधुरम् (madhuram) are the last words of the sentences.
6. Bhubaneswar is a beautiful city.भुवनेस्वरः सुन्दरं नगरम् ।
bhuvanesvaraH sundara.n nagaram
7. I read the lesson.अहं पाठम् अपठम् ।
aha.n paaTham apaTham
8. This fruit is sweet.एतत् फलम् मधुरम् ।
etat phalam madhuram
9. I am going to school.अहं विद्यालयं गच्छामि ।
aha.n vidyaalaya.n gachchhaami
Words विद्यालयं (vidyaalaya.n), नीलं (niila.n), मेघं (meghya.n), तण्डुलं (taNDula.n) and कार्यं (kaarya.n) are followed by a consonant.
10. Blue cloud is beautiful. नीलं मेघं सुन्दरम् ।
niila.n megha.n sundaram
11. Give rice to the beggar.भिक्षुकाय तण्डुलं देहि ।
bhikshukaaya taNDula.n dehi
12. He will do the work.सः कार्यं करिष्यति ।
saH kaarya.n kariShyati

Grammatical Rule
If the word ending with अनुस्वार (anusvaara) is followed by a vowel or स्वरवर्ण (svaravarNa) then अनुस्वार (anusvaara) is substituted with letter म् (m).

In sentence 1, 2, 3 and 4 the words कार्यम् (kaaryam), पुस्तकम् (pustakam), विद्यालयम् (vidyaalayam), क्षीरम् (kshiiram) and उष्णम् (uShNam) are followed by vowels. So, letter म् (m) has been used insteade of अनुस्वार (anusvaara).

Grammatical Rule
If the sentence ends with a word which itself ends with अनुस्वार (anusvaara) then अनुस्वार (anusvaara) is substituted with letter म् (m).

In sentence 5, 6, 7 and 8 the letter म् (m) has been used.

Grammatical Rule
If the word ending with अनुस्वार (anusvaara) is followed by a consonant or व्यञ्जनवर्ण (vyaJNjanavarNa) then अनुस्वार (anusvaara) remains as it is.

In sentence 9, 10, 11 and 12 the words विद्यालयं (vidyaalaya.n), नीलं (niila.n), मेघं (meghya.n), तण्डुलं (taNDula.n) and कार्यं (kaarya.n) are followed by consonants. So, अनुस्वार (anusvaara) has been used.


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