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Grammar Tutorial ::: Active Voice / कर्तृवाच्य / kartRRIvaachya

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Active Voice (कर्तृवाच्य / kartRRIvaachya): We will study "Active Voice" in this chapter with examples. Other two sentence formations will be covered in chapter 7 and 8 later. All subsequent chapters are in active voices except chapter 7 and 8.

Study the following statements.

आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Subject
(कर्ता / kartaa)
Verb
(क्रिया / kriyaa)
Object
(कर्म / karma)
1. The boy is going बालः गच्छति
baalaH gachchhati
The boy
बालः / baalaH
going
गच्छति / gachchhati
-
2. I am going अहं गच्छामि
aha.n gachchhami
I am
अहं / aha.n
going
गच्छामि / gachchhami
-
3. The boy is reading बालः पठति
baalaH pathati
The boy
बालः / baalaH
reading
पठति / pathati
-
4. I am reading अहं पठामि
aha.n pathaami
I am
अहं / aha.n
reading
पठामि / pathaami
-
5. The boy is going to school बालः विद्यालयम् गच्छति
baalaH vidyaalayam gachchhati
The boy
बालः / baalaH
going
गच्छति / gachchhati
to school
विद्यालयम् / vidyaalayam
6. I am going to school अहं विद्यालम् गच्छामि
aha.n vidyaalayam gachchhami
I am
अहं / aha.n
going
गच्छामि / gachchhami
to school
विद्यालयम् / vidyaalayam
7. The boy is reading the book बालकः पुस्तकम् पठति
baalakaH pustakam paThati
The boy
बालकः / baalakaH
reading
पठति / pathati
the book
पुस्तकम् / pustakam
8. I am reading the book अहं पुस्तकम् पठामि
aha.n pustakam paThaami
I am
अहं / aha.n
reading
पठामि / pathaami
the book
पुस्तकम् / pustakam


These are all examples of Active Voice or कर्तृवाच्य (kartRRivaachya).

Sentence 1 to 4 do not have any "Object" or कर्म (karma) in them. So these are intransitive or अकर्म कर्तृवाच्य (akarmaka kartRRivachya).

Rule 5: In a कर्तृवाच्य (kartRRivaachya) the "Subject" or कर्ता (kartaa) is always in the "nominative case" or प्रथमा विभक्ति (prathamaa vibhakti).



Sentence 5 to 8 have "Object" or कर्म (karma) like विद्यालयम् (vidyaalayam), पुस्तकम् (pustakam) in them. So, these are transitive or सकर्मक कर्तृवाच्य (sakarmaka kartRRivachya).



Rule 6: In a कर्तृवाच्य (kartRRivaachya) the "Object" or कर्म (karma) is always in the "accusative case" or द्वितीया विभक्ति (dvitiiyaa vibhakti).




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