SAMSKRUTAM

SAMSKRUTAM Studies

Welcome Guest!  | Login
Home | Sanskrit Editor | Help (?) |  »

Literature

Tutorial

Resources

Miscellaneous

SAMSKRUTAM

Grammar Tutorial ::: Sense Of Preceeding Action / क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय / ktvaach pratyaya

RSS

क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय / ktvaach pratyaya (Sense Of Preceeding Action): In this chapter we will study the क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय (ktvaach pratyaya). The verb form with this suffix is used to express - an action which preceeds another action. In this the verb root gets the क्त्वाच् (ktvaach) suffix.

Study the following sentences. These are using क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय (ktvaach pratyaya).

आङ्ग्लभाषा
English
संस्कृत
Sanskrit
Verb + ktvaach Suffix
धातु + क्त्वाच् (dhaatu + ktvaach)
Comments
1. The boy wants to read after playing.बालः क्रीडित्वा पठितुम् इच्छति ।
baalaH kriiDitvaa paThitum ichchhati
क्रीडित्वा = क्रीड् + क्त्वाच्
kriiDitvaa = kriiD + ktvaach
-
2. Father went to office after eating.पिता खादित्वा कार्यालयम् अगच्छत् ।
pitaa khaaditvaa kaaryaalayam agachchhat
खादित्वा = खाद् + क्त्वाच्
khaaditvaa = khaad + ktvaach
3. The worker sleeps after working.कर्मकारः कार्यं कृत्वा शेते ।
karmakaaraH kaarya.n kRRitvaa shete
कृत्वा = कृ + क्त्वाच्
kRRitvaa = kRRi ktvaach
4. Mother wants to cook after taking bath.माता स्नात्वा पक्तुम् इच्छति ।
maataa snaatvaa paktum ichchhati
स्नात्वा = स्ना + क्त्वाच्
snaatvaa = snaa + ktvaach
5. The teacher asked question after teaching.शिक्षकः पाठयित्वा प्रश्नं अपृच्छन् ।
shikahskaH paaThayitvaa prashna.n apRRichchhan
पाठयित्वा = पाठ् + क्त्वाच्
paaThayitvaa = paaTh + ktvaachn
पाठ् = पठ् + णिज् (paaTh = paTh + Nij). It means "to make others read". णिज् प्रत्यय (Nij pratyaya) will be covered in later chapters. It expresses the action being initiated by someone.
6. The girl slept after reading.बाला पठित्वा शायितवति ।
baalaa paThitvaa shaayitavati
पठित्वा = पठ् + क्त्वाच्
paThitvaa = paTh + ktvaach
शायितवति = शि + क्त (shaayitavati = shi + kta). क्त (kta) is an alternative of past tense (लङ्लकार / laN^lakaara), using which past tense can be expressed easily. This will be covered in later chapters.
7. I drink water after eating.अहं खादित्वा पिवामि ।
aha.n khaaditvaa pivaami
खादित्वा = खाद् + क्त्वाच्
khaaditvaa = khaad + ktvaach
-
8. You give answer after reading the book.त्वं पुस्तकं पठित्वा उत्तरं देहि ।
tva.n pustaka.n paThitvaa uttara.n dehi
पठित्वा = पठ् + क्त्वाच्
paThitvaa = paTh + ktvaach
9. Both the girls dance after singing.बाले गीत्वा नृत्यतः ।
baale giitvaa nRRityataH
गीत्वा = गै + क्त्वाच्
giitvaa = gai + ktvaach
10. Both the boys play after going home.बालौ गृहं गत्वा क्रीडतः ।
baalau gRRiha.n gatvaa kriiDataH
गत्वा = गम् + क्त्वाच्
gatvaa = gam + ktvaach
11. Both of us read the letter after writing.आवाम् पत्रं लिखित्वा अपठत् ।
aavaam patra.n likhitvaa apaThat
लिखित्वा = लिख् + क्त्वाच्
likhitvaa = likh + ktvaach
12. Both of you write the essay after referring the book.युवाम् पुस्तकं दृष्ट्वा रचनां लिखतम् ।
yuvaam pustaka.n dRRiShTvaa rachanaa.n likhatam
दृष्ट्वा = दृश् + क्त्वाच्
dRRiShTvaa = dRRish + ktvaach
13. Farmers water the land after plaughing.कृषकाः भूमिं कृष्ट्वा जलं सिञ्चन्ति ।
kRRiShakaaH bhuumi.n kRRiShTvaa siJNcjanti
कृष्ट्वा = कृष् + क्त्वाच्
kRRiShTvaa = kRRiSh + ktvaach
14. The girls want to sing after worshiping.बालिकाः पूजयित्वा गातुम् इच्छन्ति ।
baalikaaH puujayitvaa gaatum ichchhanti
पूजयित्वा = पूज् + क्त्वाच्
puujayitvaa = puuj + ktvaach
15. Workers will take wages after working.कर्मकाराः कार्यं कृत्वा वेतनं नेष्यन्ति ।
karmakaaraaH kaarya.n kRRitvaa vetana.n neShyanti
कृत्वा = कृ + क्त्वाच्
kRRitvaa = kRRi + ktvaach
16. Worshippers come to pray after taking bath.भक्ताः स्नात्वा पूजयितुम् आगच्छन्ति ।
bhaktaaH snaatvaa puujayitum aagachchhanti
स्नात्वा = स्ना + क्त्वाच्
snaatvaa = snaa + ktvaach
17. The boy went to school without reading.बालकः अपठित्वा विद्यालयम् अगच्छत् ।
baalakaH apaThitvaa vidyaalayam agachchhat
अपठित्वा = न + पठ् + क्त्वाच्
apaThitvaa = na + paTh + ktvaach
Use of नञ्ज् to express negative of an action. The न (na) is replaced with अ (a).
18. The worker went without doing the work.कर्मकारः कार्यं अकृत्वा गृहम् अगच्छत् ।
karmakaaraH kaarya.n akRRitvaa gRRiham agachchhat
अकृत्वा = न + कृ + क्त्वाच्
akRRitvaa = na + kRRi + ktvaach
19. The jackal fall in the water tank after entering the washerman's house.शृगालः रजकस्य गृहे प्रविश्य जलभाण्डे अपतत् ।
shRRigaalaH rajakasya gRRihe pravishya jalabhaaNDe apatat
प्रविश्य = प्र + विश् + ल्यप्
pravishya = pra + vish + lyap
Verbs prefixed with preposition (उपसर्ग / upasarga).
20. You give the book after bringing from home.त्वं गृहात् पुस्तकं आनीय देहि ।
tva.n gRRihaat pustaka.n aaniiya dehi
आनीय = आ + नी + ल्यप्
aaniiya = aa + nii + lyap

In setences 1 to 16 there are two actions, one following the other. The verbs "play", "eat", "teach", "read", "work", "bath", "sing", "go", "write", "refer", "plaugh" and "worship" represent the action preceeding another action. So, these are suffixed with क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय (ktvaach pratyaya).

In setences 3 and 14 the verbs "read", "sing" express the intent to do something. So, these are in तुमुन् (tumun) form. In all other setences the verb representing the proceeding action are in their respective tenses or moods.

Grammatical Rule
If a setence has two verbs then the verb expressing the earlier action will be suffixed with क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय (ktvaach pratyaya).

Grammatical Rule
The verb with क्त्वाच् (ktvaach) suffix is independent of number and gender of the subject and is used as indeclinable.

In the above sentences the क्त्वाच् (ktvaach) suffixed verbs are independent of the subjects. They are not following the number and gender of the subjects.


Grammatical Rule
If the verb with क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय (ktvaach pratyaya) is preceeded with नञ्ज् (naJnj) to express negative of an action then the नञ्ज् (naJnj) can be replaced with अ (a) and is prefixed to the verb.

In the sentences 17 and 18 the verbs "read" and "do" are used with the न (नञ्ज़् / naJNj) to express the action not being done. So, अ (a) has been prefixed to the the त्वाच् (tvaach) form of these verbs.


Grammatical Rule
If the verb is preixed with preposition (उपसर्ग / upasarga) then the verb will follow ल्यप् प्रत्यय (lyap pratyaya) instead of the क्त्वाच् (ktvaach).

In the sentences 19 and 20 the verbs "bring" and "enter" have the prepositions (उपसर्ग / upasarga) आ (aa) and प्र (pra) prefixed. So, instead of क्त्वाच् (ktvaach) the ल्यप् प्रत्यय (lyap pratyaya) has been used.



Followings are the त्वाच् प्रत्यय (tvaach pratyaya) form of few commonly used verbs.


Commonly Used क्त्वाच् प्रत्यय (ktvaach pratyaya) Forms

Verb
धातु
dhaatu
क्त्वाच्
ktvaach
Verb
धातु
dhaatu
क्त्वाच्
ktvaach
Verb
धातु
dhaatu
क्त्वाच्
ktvaach
laugh
हस्
has
हसित्वा
hasitvaa
serve
सेव्
sev
सेवित्वा
sevitvaa
protect
रक्ष्
raksh
रक्षित्वा
rakshitvaa
salute
नम्
nam
नत्वा
natvaa
eat
भक्ष्
bhaksh
भक्षित्वा
bhakshitvaa
worship
पूज्
puuj
पूजयित्वा
puujayitvaa
free
मुच्
much
मुक्त्वा
muktvaa
fall
पत्
pat
पतित्वा
pativtaa
beg
याच्
yaach
याचित्वा
yaachitvaa
remember
स्मृ
smRRi
स्मृत्वा
smRRitvaa
forgive
क्षम्
ksham
क्षमित्वा
kshamitvaa
compose
रच्
rach
रचयित्वा
rachayitvaa
steal
चुर्
chur
चौरयित्वा
chaurayitvaa
go
गम्
gam
गत्वा
gatvaa





<<  :::  Index  :::  >>
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work by SAMSKRUTAM is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You can copy, distribute, transmit, adapt, and make use of the work (including commercial); with attribution of this work to SAMSKRUTAM.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. SAMSKRUTAM™ is a trademark of the Sanskrit & Indology Foundation, a non-profit organisation.

Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | About - Sanskrit & Indology Foundation | About - SAMSKRUTAM
an open content project by
Sanskrit & Indology Foundation.
PoweredBy
SAMSKRUTAM.COM website hosted since 2005.
sanskrit@samskrutam.com | info@samskrutam.com